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Glossary of 8th Grade Science: Cells and Heredity

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Genetics
Study of heredity
Purebred
Offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
Trait
An inherited characteristic
Heredity
The genes and the genetic traits whose expression they control that are passed on from one's parents
Gene
The basic unit capable of transmitting characteristics from one generation to the next.
Alleles
A form of a gene
Hybrid
An organism that two different alleles for a trait.
Homozygous
Having identical alleles for a single trait.
Recessive Allele
The allele that is masked.
Dominant Allele
The allele that is shown in the phenotype of an organism
Sexual Reproduction
Two organisms produce offspring that have genetic characteristics from both parents.
Asexual Reproduction
One organism produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself.
Probability
The likelihood of an event to happen
Punnett Square
A square used to determine the probability of an offspring expressing a particular genotype.
Phenotype
The physical appearance of an organism.
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism.
Codominance
Neither phenotype is dominant: the organism expresses both phenotypes.

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