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Glossary of 8.5.1

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The second-lowest of Earth’s atmosphere; the ozone layer is located in the upper stratosphere.
stratosphere
The lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere, where weather occurs.
troposphere
The middle layer of Earth’s atmosphere; the layer in which most meteoroids burn up.
mesosphere
The outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere
thermosphere
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
convergent boundary
A plate boundary where tow plates move away from each other.
divergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
transform boundary
A scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals.
Mohs Hardness scale
The color of a mineral’s powder
streak
A mineral’s ability to split easily along flat surfaces.
cleavage
The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth’s surface.
weathering
The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil.
erosion
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
compaction
The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
cementation
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
igneous rock
Small, solid particles of material from rocks or organisms which are moved by water or wind, resulting in erosion or deposition.
sediment
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
metamorphic rock
The molten mixture of rock-forming substance, gases, and water that makes up part of the Earth’s mantle.
magma
The dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of the Earth.
inner core
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth’s crust and core.
mantle
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.
outer core
The layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer surface.
crust
The layer of soil beneath the topsoil that contains mostly clay and other minerals.
subsoil
The solid layer of rock beneath the soil. Also known as bedrock.
unweathered parent rock
The layer of partially weathered rock between the bedrock and subsoil.
weathered parent rock
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil.
top soil
Magma that reaches the surface.
lava
The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano.
vent
The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid, such as water, absorb enough energy to change to a gaseous state, such as water vapor.
evaporation
Forms of water such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that fall from clouds and reach Earth’s surface.
precipitation
Water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground.
run off
The process by which plants release water vapor through their leaves.
transpiration
The process by which a gas, such as water vapor, changes to a liquid, such as water.
condensation
The continuous process by which water moves from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back, passing through the living and nonliving parts of the environment.
water cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
rock cycle

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