Glossary of 5th Grade Earth Science

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What are three causes of chemical weathering?
Water, Oxygen and Acids

Some living things give off acids that cause chemical weathering.
How do glaciers cause erosion and deposition?
As the glacier moves, rocks and soil become buried in its bottom and edges. These rocks grind against the land as the glacier moves.
Metamorphic Rock
Rock formed when heat and pressure change the minerals in igneous or sedimentary rocks.
How do waves cause erosion and deposition?
Waves crashing against the shore of a lake or ocean move even huge rocks. Waves can carry sand away from the beach or put more sand onto a beach. Waves often form new land by depositipon. The waves pick up sand and rocks and drop them along the shore of bays forming new beaches.
What can people learn from fossils?
Fossils help people learn how life on the earth has changed.Fossils also help people learn how the earth's crust has changed.
Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms from cemented or pressed sediments.
How do streams cause erosion and deposition?
The amount of erosion a stream causes depends on three main things:
1) The steepness of the land affects erosion.
2) The amount of water in a stream affects the amount of erosion.
3) The plants on the land also affect erosion.
Water that drains off land.
Moving of weathered rock and soil.
A large, slow-moving mass of ice.
A fossil formed by sediments filling a mold.
What are three causes of physical weathering?
Wind, Water and Living Things.
What are the two main kinds of glaciers?
1) A sheet of ice that can cover thousands of square kilometers of land.
2) This kind of glacier forms in mountains and looks like a frozen river.
How does wind cause erosion?
Wind changes the earth's crust by moving soil and sand. Wind can carry sand grains and blow them against rocks.
Soil, sand, and rocks carried by wind and water.
The dropping of sediments moved by erosion.
What is physical weathering?
The breaking of rocks into smaller pieces.
What is the definition of oxide?
A material formed when oxygen joins chemically with a mineral.
What is chemical weathering?
A process that changes the minerals in rocks.
What are some fossils that form in sediments?
Fish fossil, petrified trees, Molds and cast, Dinosaur footprints, Glossopteris plant.
To replace molecules in dead organisms with minerals.
Rock Cycle
The ways that rocks change from one form to another.
A hollow left in sediment after an organism dissolves.
A footprint or other track of an organism that has been preserved in rock.
How does wind cause deposition?
When winds slow down, deposition occurs as sediments drop to the ground. The heaviest pieces drop first.
How does chemical weathering change the earth's crust?
Chemical weathering changes the minerals that make up the rocks. Water, oxygen, and acids act on rocks, forming new minerals.
A substance made up of atoms arranged in a repeating pattern. All the crystals of a mineral have the same basic shape, but can be different in size.
Ice Age
A period of thousands of years when snow and ice cover much of the earth.
igneous rock
rock formed from cooled magma
How is chemical weathering different from physical weathering?
Physical weathering only changes the sizes and shapes of rocks. Chemical weathering changes the minerals that make up the rock.
How does physical weathering change the earth's crust?
Physical weathering changes the sizes and shapes of rocks. For example, wind blows dust and sand against rocks. The sand works like sandpaper and slowly wears away the rocks.Physical weathering only changes the sizes and shapes of rocks.

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