Glossary of 5 LOM Urinary Pathological Terminology
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- Inflammation of the kidney.
Cause: systemic disorder or
idiopathic. Also after acute infection (poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis).
- Chronic glomerulonephritis can result in _ _ _
- hypertension, albuminuria, renal failure, and uremia.
Transplant may be necessary if uremia occurs.
- Interstitial nephritis
- Inflammation of the renal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between renal tubules).
- Cause of interstitial nephritis
- administration of drugs.
- interstitial nephritis is characterized by :
- fever, skin rash, eosinophils in blood and urine, and poor renal function. Recovery may occur when patient discontinues using offending agent. Recovery helped with corticosteroids.
- Kidney stones (renal calculi)
Usually composed of uric acid or calcium salts.
- Cause of calculi formation
- conditions associated with an increase in the concentration of Ca (parathyroid gland tumors), or high levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia - associated with gouty arthritis)
- Where do stones often lodge?
- ureter, bladder, as well as in the renal pelvis.
- nephrotic syndrome
- a group of symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine (also called nephrosis).
- symptoms of nephrotic syndrome
- proteinuria, edema(fluid in tissue spaces), hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypercoagulability, and susceptibility to infections.
- Some causes of nephrotic syndrome may be :
- Nephrotic syndrome may follow glomerulonephritis, exposure to toxins or drugs, other pathological conditions like diabetes mellitus and malignant disease.
Drugs may be useful to heal the leaky glomerulus.
- polycystic kidneys
- Multiple cysts within and upon the kidney. Hereditary condition. Remains asymptomatic until adult life.
- How does polycystic kidneys develope?
- Cysts progressively develop in both kidneys, leading to nephromegaly, hematuria, urinary tract infection, hypertension, and uremia.
- Inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla.
Caused by bacterial infection.
Many small abscesses (collections of pus) form in the renal pelvis and adjacent medulla. urinalysis reveals pyuria.
- Treatment of pyelonephritis:
- antibiotics and surgical correction of any obstruction to urine flow. Recurrent infections lead to destruction of renal tissue and to scar formation.
- renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
- Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood. Accounts for 2% of all cancers in adults. Hematuria is the primary symptom, often metastasizes to bones and lungs. Treatment is nephrectomy.
- renal failure
- Failure of the kidney to excrete wastes and to maintain its filtration function. May be acute or chronic, reversible or progressive, mild or severe.
- ESRD or CKD
- end-stage renal disease or chronic kidney disease, final phase of chronic renal failure. Erythropoietin is used to treat patients with CKD. It increases RBCs and results in marked improvement in energy levels. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation may be needed.
- renal hypertension
- High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease. The most common type of secondary hypertension.
- essentaial hypertension
- when the cause of high blood pressure is not known. chronic essential hypertension can cause arteriole walls to thicken (nephrosclerosis), and this can produce glomerular ischemia, atrophy, and scarring of kidney tissue.
- Wilms tumor
- Malignant tumor of the kidney occuring in childhood. Treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
- bladder cancer
- Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder. most common site of malignancy of the urinary system. Occurs more frequently in men (smokers) over the age of 50.
- Symptoms of bladder cancer
- gross or microscopic hematuria, dysuria, increased urinary frequency. Diagnostic procedure : cystoscopy with biopsy. superficial tumors are removed by electrocauterization.
- diabetes insipidus
- Inadequate secretion or kidney resisting action of ADH. 'insipidus' means tasteless, very dilute and watery urine, not sweet. 'diabetes' Greek for 'to pass through'.
- Two major symptoms of diabetes insipidus are:
- polydipsia and polyuria.
- effect of lack of ADH
- prevents water from being reabsorbed into the blood through the renal tubules.
- diabetes mellitus
- Inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin.
- Major symptoms of diabetes mellitus are:
- glycosuria, hyperglycemia, polyuria, and polydipsia. Sugar cannot leave the bloodstream. The excess sugar spills over into urine because kidneys cannot reabsorb it. Mellitus means sweet.
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