Glossary of 5 - Obesity and satiety
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- What effect does electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus have on feeding? What effect do lesions in this area have?
- Stimulation supresses food intake, whereas lesions cause uncontrolled eating.
- What effect does electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus have on feeding? What effect do lesions in this area have?
- Stimulation causes uncontrolled eating, whereas lesions result in anorexia.
- How does injection of CCK affect eating behavior? How does this affect long-term weight?
- It provides inhibitory signals which cause cessation of eating. This is a transient effect and does not change weight over time. Caloric intake remains constant because although meals are smaller, they are more frequent and more numerous.
- Describe the effect of injection of exogenous ghrelin.
- It provides a transient appetite stimulation and increased intake of food.
- Do serum levels of endogenous ghrelin remain constant in the blood? How do the levels of ghrelin in obese persons compare to those of normal persons?
- Ghrelin levels rise and fall in a cyclic manner related to timing of meals. In obese persons, ghrelin levels are actually lower than normal.
- What are 3 pieces of evidence for the existence of a set point of body weight?
- 1.Body weight does not change more than 1-2 lbs/year.
2.Identical twins maintain similar weight, even if they are separated.
3.There are numerous hereditary obesity diseases.
- Increase in mass of adipose tissue is thought to provide a signal to the CNS which then effects a decrease in tissue mass. What is the effector mechanism here?
- The CNS stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis which speeds metabolic rate through sympathetic innervation to reduce the mass of adipose tissue.
- What gene codes for leptin? In what tissue is this gene expressed? What evidence exists that leptin is a secreted compound?
- *the obese gene
*expressed in adipose tissue
*has a signal peptide
- What happens when obese mice are injected with exogenous leptin?
- They lose adipose tissue (not lean mass) due to decreased intake and increased metabolic rate.
- How is leptin connected to amenorrhea in female athletes?
- Female athletes have less adipose tissue, thus secrete less leptin. Leptin is thought to have a stimulatory role in the secretion of estrogen. Low leptin means low estrogen and thus amenorrhea.
- What is the blood level of leptin in obese persons? What does this mean?
- Most obese persons show an excess of functional leptin. In only a few isolated cases has obesity been associated with leptin deficiency. This has led to the idea that obesity is associated leptin resistance.
- What is the protein product of the "diabetes" gene? Where is this gene expressed?
- This gene codes for the leptin receptor. It is expressed in the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus.
- What happens when a db/db mouse is parabiotically attached to an ob/ob mouse?
- The ob/ob mouse loses weight because it receives leptin from the db/db mouse. The db/db mouse remains obese.
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