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Glossary of 5- The Integumentary System- Anatomy and Physiology

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What are the 2 layers of the integument?
epidermis and dermis
dermis
layer underneath; loose and dense connective tissue
epidermis
lop layer, keratin; epithelial tissue
6 functions of the integument
1. protection
2. excretions
3. temperature control
4. synthesis of Vitamin D
5. nutrient storage
6. sensory reception
keratinocytes
most common cell types of epidermis
reticular layer
run in a network of fibers below papillary plexus
cutaneous plexus
where reticular and hyperdermis meet
papillary plexus
where reticular and papillary meet
papillary layer
2nd layer; branch up
layers of the epidermis (5):
stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.
stratum germinativum
bottom; cells are actively reproducing
epidermal ridges
make fingerprints
stem cells
undifferentiated cells that are going to become skin cells
melanocytes
produce melanin
melanin
made and stored in vesicles; protect you from UV radiation
carotene
2nd pigment; yellowish/orange; converted into Vitamin A
Stratum spinosum
8-10 cells thick; spiny; continue to divide
desmosomes
plaques of proteoglycans and intermediate fibers
stratum granulosum
stop dividing;
keratohyaline
precursor to keratin
stratum lucidum
found in thick skin; 3-5 cells thick;
eleidin
derived from keratohyaline; protection
stratum corneum
dead cells; 15-30 cells thick; made up of keratin sandwiches
cholecalciferol
produced in sunlight in germinativum and spinosum;
calcitrol
Ca binding proteins (active form of Vitamin D)
subcutaneous layer
below dermis
basal cell carcinoma
most common
~70% of skin cancers
squamal cell carcinoma
~25% of skin cancers
melanoma
~4%; spread easily, chew threw membrane to get through to the blood stream

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