## Glossary of 4th Grade Harcourt Math Vocabulary

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- period
- Each group of three digits separated by commas in a multidigit number

- expression
- A part of a number sentence that combines numbers and operation signs but does not have an equal sign

- millions
- The period after thousands

- variable
- A letter or symbol that stands for a number or numbers

- benchmark
- A known number of things that helps you understand the size or amount of a different number of things

- Commutative Property of Addition
- The property that states that when the order of two addends is changed, the sum is the same

- round
- To replace a number with another number that tells about how many or how much

- Associative Property of Addition
- The property that states that you can group addends in different ways and still get the same sum

- Identity Property of Addition
- The property that states that when you add zero to any number, the sum is that number

- century
- A measure of time equal to 100 years

- equation
- A number sentence which shows that two quantities are equal

- decade
- A measure of time equal to 10 years

- second
- A small unit of time; 60 seconds = 1 minute

- survey
- A method of gathering information to record data

- elapsed time
- The time that passes from the start of an activity to the end of that activity

- frequency
- The number of times an event ocurs

- cumulative frequency
- A running total of items being counted

- line plot
- A graph that shows the frequency of data along a number line

- mean
- The number found by dividing the sum of the set of numbers by the number of addends

- range
- The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data

- median
- The middle number in an ordered set of data

- outlier
- A value separated from the rest of the data

- mode
- The number (s) or item(s)that occur most often in a set of data

- stem - and - leaf plot
- A data display that shows groups of data arranged by place value

- stem
- A tens digit in a stem-and leaf plot

- double-bar graph
- A graph used to compare similar kinds of data

- leaf
- A ones digit in a stem-leaf plot

- trends
- On a graph, areas where the data increase, decrease, or stay the same over time

- scale
- The numbers placed at fixed distances on a graph to help label the graph

- line graph
- A graph that uses a line to show how data change over a period of time

- interval
- The difference between two numbers on the sale of a graph

- circle graph
- A graph in the shape of a circle that shows data as a whole made up of different parts

- inverse operations
- Opposite operations that undo each other, such as addition and subtraction or multiplication and division

- Zero Property of Multiplication
- The property that states that the product of 0 and any number is 0

- fact family
- A set of related multiplication and division or addition and subtaction equations

- Commutative Property of Multiplication
- The property that states that when the order of two factors is changed, the product is the same

- multiple
- The product of a given whole number and another whole number

- Associative Property of Multiplication
- The property that states that you can group factors in different ways and still get the same product

- Identity Property of Multiplication
- The property that states that the product of any number and 1 is that number

- order of operations
- Rules for performing operations in expressions with more than one operation; do the operations inside parentheses, then multiply and divide from left to right, then add and subtract from left to right

- compatible numbers
- Numbers that are easy to compute mentally

- divisible
- Capable of being divided so that the quotient is a whole number and the remainder is zero

- Distributive Property
- The property that states that multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend b the number and then adding the products

- prime number
- A number that has only two factors: 1 and itself

- multistep problem
- A problem requiring more than one step to solve

- composite number
- A whole number that has more than two factors

- remainder
- The amount left over when a number cannot be divided evenly

- square number
- The product of a number and itself

- square root
- One of two equal factors of a number

- ray
- a part of a line that has one endpoint and continues without end in one direction

- point
- An exact location in space

- plane
- A flat surface that extends without end in all dirterctions

- line
- A straight path of points in a plane that continues without end in both directions with no endpoints

- angle
- A figure formed by two line segments or rays that share the same endpoint

- line segment
- A part of a line that includes two points called endpoints and all the points between them

- vertex
- The point at which two rays of an angle or two or more line segments meet in a plane figure or at which three or more edges meet in a solid figure

- protractor
- A tool for measuring the size of an angle

- obtuse angle
- An angle that has a measure greater than 90 and less than 180

- degree ( )
- A unit for measuring angles or temperatures

- straight angle
- An angle that has a measure of 180

- right angle
- An angle that forms a square corner and has a measure of 90

- intersecting lines
- Lines that cross each other at exactly one point

- acute angle
- An angle that has a measure greater than 0 and less than 90

- parallel lines
- Lines in the same plane that never intersect and are always the same distance apart

- perpendicular lines
- Two lines that intersect to form four right angles

- quadrilateral
- A polygon with four sides

- polygon
- A closed plane figure with straight sides, each of which is a line segment

- pentagon
- A polygon with five sides

- regular polygon
- A polygon whose sides are all the same length

- hexagon
- A polygon with six sides

- triangle
- A polygon with three sides

- octagon
- A polygon with eight sides

- triangular pyramid
- A pyramid that has a triangular base and three triangular faces

- net
- A two-dimensional pattern that can be folded to make a three-dimensional figue

- edge
- The line segment where two or more faces of a solid figure meet

- volume
- The measure of the amount of space a solid figure occupies

- face
- A polygon that is a flat surface of a solid figure

- cubic unit
- A unit of volume with dimensions of 1 unit * 1 unit * 1 unit

- equivalent decimals
- Two or more decimals that name the same amount

- area
- The number of square units needed to cover a surface

- perimeter
- The distance around a figure

- two-dimensional
- Measured in two directions, such as length and width

- formula
- A set of symbols that expresses a mathematical rule

- three-dimensional
- Mesured in three directions, such as length, width, and height

- circumference
- The distance around a circle

- triangular prism
- A solid figure that has two triangular bases and three rectangular faces

- milliliter (mL)
- A metric unit for measuring capacity; 1,000 milliliters = 1 liter

- kilogram (kg)
- A metric unit for measuring mass; 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams

- liter (L)
- A metric unit for measuring capacity; 1 liter - 1,000 milliliters

- ounce (oz)
- A customary unit for measuring weight; 16 of these are equivalent to 1 pound

- pound (lb)
- A customary unit for measuring weight that is equivalent to 16 ounces

- ton (T)
- A customary unit for measuring weight that is equivalent to 2,000 pounds

- millimeter (mm)
- A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1,000 millimeters = 1 meter

- centimeter (cm)
- A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 100 centimeters = 1 meter

- decimeter (dm)
- A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 10 decimeters = 1 meters

- meter (m)
- A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1 meter = 100 centimeters

- kilometer (km)
- A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters

- mile (mi)
- A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 5,280 feet

- cup (c)
- A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 8 ounces

- capacity
- The amount a container can hold when filled

- pint (pt)
- A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 2 cups

- teaspoon (tsp)
- A customary unit for measuring cpacity; 3 of these are equivalent to 1 tablespoon

- quart (qt)
- A customary unit of measuring capacity that is equivalent to 2 pints

- tablespoon (tbsp)
- A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 3 teaspoons

- gallon (gal)
- A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 4 quarts

- unlikely
- Having a less that even chance of ahppening

- linear units
- Units for measuring length, width, height, or distance

- equally likely
- Having the same chance of happening

- inch (in.)
- A customary unit for measuring length or distance; 12 of these are equivalent to 1 foot

- mathematical probability
- A comparison of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes of an event

- foot (ft)
- A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 12 inches

- tree diagram
- An organized list that shows all possible outcomes of an event

- yard (yd)
- A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 3 feet

- simplest form
- The state a fraction is in when 1 is the only number that can divide evenly into both the numerator and denominator

- outcome
- A possible result of an experiment

- mixed number
- An amount given as a whole number and a fraction

- event
- One outcome or a combination of outcomes in an experiment

- like fractions
- Fractions with the same denominator

- predict
- To make a reasonable guess about what will happen

- unlike fractions
- Fractions with different denominators

- likely
- Having a greater than even chance of happening

- x-axis
- The horizontal line on a coordinate grid, or plane

- y-axis
- Th vertical line on a coordinate grid , or plane

- fraction
- A number that names a part of a whole or part of a group

- numerator
- The number above the bar in a fraction that tells how many parts of the whole or group are being considered

- x-coordinate
- The first number in an ordered pair that tells how far to move horizontally

- denominator
- The number below the bar in a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole or group

- y-coordinate
- The second number in an ordered pair that tells how far to move vertically

- equivalent fractions
- Two or more fractions that name the same amount

- equilateral triangle
- A triangle with three equal, or congruent, sides

- acute triangle
- A triangle with three acute angles

- isosceles triangle
- A triangle with two equal, or congruent, sides

- obtuse triangle
- A triangle with one obtuse angle

- scalene triangle
- A triangle with no equal, or cobgruent, sides

- parallelogram
- A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and equal, or congruent

- right triangle
- A triangle with one right angle

- rhombus
- A parallelogram with four equal, or congruent, sides

- trapezoid
- A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

- chord
- A line segment that has endpoints on a circle

- Venn diagram
- A diagram that shows relationships among sets of things

- diameter
- A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has endpoints on the circle

- circle
- A closed figure made up of points that are all the same distance from the center

- radius
- A line segment that has one endpoint at the center of a circle and the other endpoint on the circle

- center
- The point inside a circle that is the same distance from each point on the circle

- compass
- A tool used to construct circles

- line symmetry
- What a figure has if it can be folded about a line so that its two parts match exactly

- transformation
- A movement of a figure to a new position by a translation, reflection, or rotation

- rotational symmetry
- What a figure has if it can be turned about a central point and still look the same in at least two positions

- translation
- A movement of a figure to a new position along a straight line

- congruent
- Having the same size and shape

- reflection
- A movement of a figure to a new position by flipping the figure over a line

- similar
- Having the same shape but possibly different in size

- rotation
- A movement of a figure to a new position by rotating the figure around a point

- tessellation
- A repeating pattern of closed figures that covers a surface with no gaps and no overlaps

- positive numbers
- All numbers to the right of zero on the number line

- degree

Fahrenheit ( F) - A standard unit for measuring temperature

- opposites
- Numbers that are the same distance from zero but in opposite directions from zero

- degree Celsius ( C)
- A metric unit for measuring temperature

- inequality
- A mathemmatical sentence that shows that two expressions do not represent the same quantity

- negative numbers
- All numbers to the left of zero on the number line

- ordered pair
- A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate grid; the first number tells how far to move horizontally, and the second number tells how far to move vertically

- gram (g)
- A metric unit for measuring mass; 1.000 grams = 1 kilogram

- thousandth
- One of one thousand equal parts

- mass
- The amount of matter in an object

- decimal point
- A symbol used to separate dollars from cents in money and to separate the ones and the tenths places in a decimal

- decimal
- A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point