Glossary of 4Unit4

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Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the:
Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their:
memory capacities.
The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by
Piaget's cognitive development theory. p.143
Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are suddenly judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:
concept of conservation.
A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:
a theory of mind.
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.
don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
Immediately after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers':
Newborns habituate more rapidly to a ________ than to a ________.
solid disk; facelike image
After Nadia learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of:
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a:
sense of object permanence.
Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of:
insecure attachment.
Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a
The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect:
gut-level intuitions.
A series of small strokes that progressively damage an elderly person's brain is most likely to produce
what is ZEF
1)zygote 2)embryo 3)fetus
At what stage is the zygote at?
the zygote is a fertilized egg and it enters a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into and embryo
Tell me about the embryo
1)This is the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month. Attached to the uterine wall, the body organs begin to form
What does F stand for and how old it is?
F stands for fetus and 9 weeks have passed.
what is it called when a baby automatically turns its head and opens its mouth after being touched on the cheek?
When a baby is touched on the cheek and it automatically turns its head this means the baby is looking for food. This is called the rooting reflex.
What is habituation
This is when a baby gets bored easily with repeatedly presented visual stimulation.
What is maturation
some of our biological processes are genetically designed.this is a biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior, unifluenced by experience.
what is a schema
The maturing brain builds concepts. These schemes our mental molds into which we pour our experiences
how is assimilate different from accomodation
When we assimilate we merely interpret data into terms that we understand. Later on we adjust or accomodate our schemas to fit the particulars of a new experience
cognition means to be aware..of what?
Cognition are the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and communicating.
explain and describe the stage Piaget would put a 0-2 year old in
Piaget would put a child that has been born(up to two years) in the sensorimotor stage. In this stage the kids see the world in terms of their own sensory impressions and motor interaction with objects. At this age kids lack object permanence.
What is object permanence? and was piaget correct about it?
Object permanence is the awareness of objects that not percieved since they are hidden. Piaget was wrong abt object permanence becuz even babies look in amazement where they saw a toy a moment ago.
___________ is the stage where kids ages 2-6 or 7 perform mental operations. A child lacks the concept of conservation.
The stage would be the preoperational stage since it comes b4 the operational stage and it involves kids 2-6 or 7 that lack conservation
what is conservation?
conservation is the principle that Piaget believed was a part of concrete operational reasoning. It was the principle that properties remained the same despite changes in the forms of the objects
what is concrete knowledge
This is knowledge involving experience
what is the concrete operational stage?
by age 12 reasoning expands from concrete (experience) to encompass abstract thinking (imagined realities and symbols). This is reached from 6 or 7-11 but at least by 12
what comes after the concrete operational stage, according to Piaget?
the formal operational stage begins at abt age 12. it is a stage of cognitive development
critical period
optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period in life
insecure attachment
mom leaves room. kid cries. kid ok. or mom leaves kid cries. mom comes. kid continues to cry
What did Erik Erikson say about infants(infancy) and how they view the world?
he says infants view the world with basic trust. They view the world as predictable and trustworthy. This trust is formed by appropriate experiences with reponsive caregivers. if not their paranoid
what would Erikson say is the most important thing abt adolescence?
Erikson would say when you are an adolescent you have to establish who you are by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity or they become confused abt who they are
What would Erikson say needs to be achieved in young adulthood?
Erikson would say that in young adulthood one must obtain intimacy. Young adults should struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel social isolated
in what stage does sexual maturity occur?
give an ex. of a secondary and a primary sex characteristic
breast, testes
what is the first menstrual period called?
who is Lawrence Kohlberg?
he handled moral development whereas Piaget handled cognitive development.
preconvention morality
most kids have this. They obey to avoid punishment or to gain rewards.
conventional morality
by early adolescence morality moves to caring for each other and upholdings rules simply becuz they are laws. They may approve actions that gain social approval. They try to take the other's perspective
what occurs in middle adulthoood?
generativity vs. stagnation The middle aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually thru family and work. or they may feel a lack of purpose
how are cross-sectional studies different from Longitudinal studies?
Longitudinal studies restudy and retest ppl over a long period of time. Cross-sectional studies compare ppl of diff. ages
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age i.e. vocab and analogy tests...writers best work in 40s
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. scientists produce best work in 30s
culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood and retirement
social clock
developmental psychologists
they examine how we develop physically, cognitively and socially from conception to death.
baby life
adult life

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