Glossary of 440 final

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9 environmental values
-use of nature for language and thought
-function: communication, mental development
-emotional attachment/love for nature
-function: bonding, sharing, companionship
-physical appeal and beauty
-function: inspiration, harmony
-spiritual reverence and ethical concern for nature
-function: order, meaning, kinship
-systematic study of nature
-function: knowledge, understanding
-mastery, physical control, dominance of nature
-function: physical skill development, challenge
-fear, aversion, alienation from nature
-practical and material exploitation of nature
-function: physical sustenance and security
-direct experience and exploration of nature
-function: curiosity, discovery, recreation
three systems of environmental ethics
-only humans have intrinsic value, nature has instrumental value
-man is one among equals - intrinsic value to individual organisms
-life centered
-species, ecosystems, biosphere have intrinsic value, man is just a member and a citizen
spectrum of conservation incentives
-use/marketing of extracted biological products
-use/marketing of biodiversity within relatively intact ecosystems
-compensation for reduced-impact land and resource use
-direct payment for environmental services
-acquiring land and biodiversity use rights
-direct payment for biodiversity conservation
Calculating observed heterozygosity
-number of heterozygous individuals divided by total number of individuals
calculating expected heterozygosity
2n (1-sum(pi2)) divided by (2n-1)
-pi is the allelic frequency
biological species concent
-species as populations or groups of populations that actually or potentially interbreed
-reproductively isolated from other groups of organisms
phylogenetic species concept
-species as smallest diagnosable cluster if individual organisms within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry or decent
australian endangered species act
-protects native species only
-protects species only on federal land or water
-lists key threatened processes
-protects ecological communities
charactestics of communities susceptible to invasion
-early successional
-low native species diversity
-climatically matched with original habitat of invader or mild climate
-anthropogenically disrupted
-"open niche"
characteistics of successful invaders-
-high reproductive rate
-high dispersal
-high genetic variability
-phenotypically plastic
-habitat generalist
-food generalist
-broad native range
ecosystem management expands scope of traditional resource managements in these three ways
-human inclusion
Composition, structure, functino at the genetic level
-composition = allelic diversity, presence of rare alleles
-structure = heterozygosity
-Function = inbreeding/outbreeding rate
Composition, structure, function at the community-ecosystem level
-composition = richness and evenness of species
-structure = average and range of tree ages within defined seral stages
-function = intensity/severity of disturbance events
Composition, structure, function at landscape level
-composition = total amount of forest patch perimeter and edge zones
-structure = patch shape indices
-function = disturbance indicators
composition, structure, function at a species/population level
-composition = absolute and relative abundances
-structure = sex ratio, age distribution
-function = population growth and fluctuation of species interest species
limitations to use/marketing of extracted biological products
-finite resources with limited renewal capacity
-expanding, virtually inexhaustible demand
limitations to use/marketing of biodiversity within relatively intact ecosystems
-limited prospects
-not always biodiversity-friendly
limitations to compensation for reduced-impact land and resource use
-market limitations
-targeting problems
-monitoring challenges
limitations to direct payment for environmental services
-"side benefit" - biodiversity - may not always result
limitations to acquiring land and biodiversity use rights
-success depends on insittutional environment
limitations to direct payment for biodiversity conservation
-specify outcomes, not methods
-indicators and monitoring are critical

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