Glossary of 4-Urogenital Development
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- What structures does intermediate mesoderm go on to form?
- kidneys and gonads
- What does the paraxial mesoderm form?
- head and somites
- Name the 3 divisions of the somite and what each is responsible for forming.
- What are the 3 divisions of the lateral mesoderm?
- splanchnic, somatic and extra-embryonic
- What does the splanchnic mesoderm form?
- circulatory system
- Paired nephrotomes are paired segmentally and come from what regions? What mesoderm do they stem from?
- cervical to sacral
- Name the 3 types of kidneys formed during fetal development.
- In what direction do the 3 kidneys develop?
- When do the mesonephros start to differentiate?
- when the pronephrons start to disappear
- Which part(s) of the developing kidney produce urine?
- mesonephros (some)
- What does the mesonephric duct contribute to?
- developing testis, male genital system and vestigial remnants in the female
- How many functional mesonephric tubules are located on each side?
- When do the metanephros appear?
- 5th week of fetal development
- What does the metanephros form from?
- bud that grows out of mesonephric duct, this bud grows into the surrounding mesoderm
- Where is the metanephros able to produce urine?
- weeks 11-13 of fetal development
- When is the definitive architecture of the metanephros present?
- week 10 of fetal development
- Urine is produced early in development-why is this important?
- provides component of amniotic fluid
- What is the primary waste disposal system for the fetus?
- What is polyhydramnios? What causes it?
- excess amniotic fluid may be due to esophageal or duodenal atresia which prevents normal swallowing of amniotic fluid
- What is oligohydramnios? What causes it?
- shortage of amniotic fluid due to falure of the kidneys to develop or ruptured membranes
- Name 5 functions of the amniotic fluid.
control of body temp
prevent adherence of amnion to embryo
permits symmetrical external growth of embryo
allows free movement of embryo
- What is lung hypoplasia associated with?
- What is the origin of the metanephros?
- What does the metanephric blastema form from?
- intermediate mesoderm
- What 'sprout' from the mesonephric ducts?
- ureteric buds
- What surrounds the ureteric buds?
- metanephric blastema
- What does outgrowth of the ureteric bud form?
- collecting tubules, calyces, and pelvis
- What is the nephron derived from? collecting tubules?
- nephron-metanephric blastem
- What causes the kidney to ascend?
- differential growth
- Is kidney development complete at birth?
- No, nephron formation is complete, but elongation of segments and functional maturation occurs after birth
- What is an ectopic kidney?
- the kidney in an unusual site, ie pelvic kidney, often pancake shaped
- What can occur w/ horseshoe kidneys?
- their ascent is blocked by the IMA
- What can cause a hydronephrotic kidney?
- obstruction of the lower end of the ureter
- Whith a pelvic kidney, where does the adrenal gland form?
- in its normal position
- How do ectopic ureters occur?
- duplications of the ureteric bud
- What does the epithelium of the bladder form from? What do other layers of the wall (ie SM) form from?
- epithelium-urogenital sinus
- What divides the cloaca into a dorsal rectum and ventral urogenital sinus?
- urorectal septum
- The mesonephric ducts and attached ureteric buds are intercalated into the posterior wall of the bladder. What is this process called?
- exstrophy (eversion of a hollow organ)
- Initially the bladder is continuous with the allantois which goes on to form what? What is this stucture known as in the adult?
median umbilical ligament
- Where is the bladder located in infants?
- What are the major ducts of the gonads in females?
- paramesonephric or Mullerian ducts
- What are the major ducts of the gonads in males?
- mesonephric ducts or Wolffian ducts
- What do the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens differentiate from?
- mesonephric system
- What is the difference between a fistula and a sinus?
- a fistula is an open tube a sinus is a blind tube (only open at one end)
- What happens to the mesonephric ducts?
- they are resorbed into the posterior bladder
- What happens to the mesonephric ducts in females? males?
- they degenerate
- In females, what is the epithelium of the urethra formed from?
- urogenital sinus
- In males, what is the epithelium of the urethra formed from?
- urogenital sinus except for the distal portion which is derived from the ectodermal glandular plate
- What is the CT and SM of the urethra formed from?
- splanchnopleuric mesenchyme
- What is exstrophy of the bladder?
- exposure and protrusion of the posterior wall of the bladder through the abdominal wall
- What is it called when the urethra opens on the dorsal surface of the penis? ventral surface?
- What is the cortex of the adrenal gland formed from?
- intermediate mesoderm
- What is the medulla of the adrenal gland derived from?
- neural crest
- What is dehydroipiandrosterone produced by? What is it a precursor of?
- What is the fetal adrenal cortex a part of?
- the feto-materno-placental unit
- What can congenital virilizing hyperplasia cause in females?
- Describe how females can get masculization of their genitalia is there is a defect in glucocoricoids.
- ACTH keeps increasing which stimulates the entire cortex of adrenal glands and get an increase in male hormones
- What acts on the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal glands? What hormone is secreted?
- What acts on the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands? What hormone is secreted?
glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgen
- What acts on the zona reticularis? What hormone is secreted?
gluccocorticoids and androgen
- What acts on the medulla of the adrenal gland? What hormone is secreted?
- preganglionic fibers
epi and NE
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