Glossary of 4-Reproductive System
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- Name the 4 steps of sex determination.
- genetic, gondadal, phenotypic, psychological
- When do each of the 4 stages of sex determination occur?
- Name 4 parts the help shape psychological sex.
- gender identity, gender roles, gender orientation (the choice of sex partners), cognitive differences
- What is penotypic sex induced by?
- What is the reproductive capablity of someone who is XXX? XXY?
- XXX-produce normal offspring
XXY-spermatogenesis is not functional
- What is the syndrome of XXY? Describe the genitalia?
- Klinefelter's syndrome
normal penis, small testicles
- What is Turner's syndrome?
- females having only one X choromosome (XO)
- Name the three cell types from which gonads develop.
- coelomic epithelium, mesenchyme, primordial germ cells
- What are primordial germ cells destined to produce? Where are they first visible? And at what week?
- eggs or sperm
in the yolk sac near the allantois outside the embryo during 4th emobryonic week
- What might primordial germ cells be derived from?
- The epithelial cells of the coelomic epithelium thicken and differentiate over what? What does this form?
- mesenchyme near the mesonephros
- What does the gonadal ridge become?
- bipotential gonad
- During the 6th week, how many primordial germ cells migrate into each gondal ridge?
- The paramesonephric duct or Mullerian duct develops as an invagination of what?
- coelomic epithelium
- Near the developing gonad is the pre-existing mesonephric duct as well as _____.
- paramesonephric or Mullerian duct
- What surrounds the incoming primordial germ cells?
- mesenchymal cells of the gonadal ridge
- What are primordial germ cells within the developing ovary callede by the 7th-9th week? What is the percentage of cells present at this time?
- What do the mesenchymal cells that surround the oogonia become? At what week does this occur?
- follicular cells
- What happens to oocytes that are not surrounded by follicular cells?
- Describe the need for steroids in development of the female genitalia.
- little steroid production by the fetal ovary and it isn't neccesary for development of female tubular structures or female external genitalia
- True or False. Testicular development lags slightly behind ovarian development.
- False, ovarian dev is behind testicular dev
- What do the cortical sex cords differentiate into?
- follicular cells
- What is incorporated into follicular cells?
- primordial germ cells
- What inhibits completion of meiosis until puberty in females?
- follicular cells
- The arrangement of flattened follicular cells around a meiotically-blocked oogonium is known as what?
- primordial follicle
- XO oocytes in Turner's syndrome generally undergo embryonic atresia. What does this result in?
- disrupted ovarian development
- When in female development is there the greatest number of germ cells?
- week 20 (embryologically)
- What do many of the male accessory reproductive organs develop from?
- embryonic urinary system structures
- Which phenotype is inherent (dominant or the default developmental path)?
- What do the paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts form?
- oviducts, uterus, and most of vagina
- What happens to the caudal ends of the paramesonephric ducts? What does this form?
- they grow together as they join the urogenital sinus
-joint midline structure, uterovaginal primordium
- What is the urogenital sinus formed from?
- What does the uterovaginal primordium form?
- proximal 4/5 of vagina and cervix and uterus
- The contact of the uterovaginal primordium and urogenital sinus induces what?
- sinusal tubercle
- What is the cloaca?
- an expansion of the rectum
- Name the 2 chambers of the cloaca.
- urogenital sinus and rectum
- What is the urogenital sinus connected to?
- Name the 3 folds of the rectum.
- superior Tourneus fold and L&R Rathke's folds
- What is the urogenital sinus further divided into in females?
- sinovaginal bulbs and urethra and bladder
- What do the sinovaginal bulbs develop from? What do they form?
- dev from sinusal tubercle
form distal 1/5 of vagina
- Where does the sinovaginal bulb develop with respect of the urethra?
- posterior (sinovaginal bulb forms distal 1/5 of vagina)
- What does the superior part of the vagina form from? lower portion?
- -uterovginal primordium (Mullerian ducts)
- The greater vestibular glands of the female are homologous to what in males?
- bulbourethral glands
- What is another name for greater vestibular glands? (female)
- Bartholin's glands
- What is another name of bulbourethral glands? (male)
- The fusion of the paramesonephric ducts from each side bring together peritoneal folds wichi unite to form what?
- broad ligament, vesicouterine pouch anteriorly and rectouterine pouch posteriorly
- In males, as primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate into the gonadal ridge, the mesenchymal cells surround the PGCs and differentiate into what?
- sertoli cells
- What do sertoli cells form? What are these precursors to?
- sex cords, precursors to seminiferous tubules
- What do peritubular myoid cells migrate into? What are they from?
- migrate to developing testis
from mesonephric kidney
- What do mesenchymal cells differentiate into?
- Leydig cells
- What do the embryonic sertoli cells produce?
- anti-Mullerian hormoe
- What do Leydig cells produce?
- As the testis develop what does the coelomic epithelium differentiate into?
- tunica albuginea, the CT capsule of testis
- Name the two hormones produced by the embryonic testis.
- MIS (Mullerian inhibiting substance) (anti-Mullerian hormone or AMH) and testosterone
- What do Sertoli cells secrete? What does this prevent?
- AMH (MIS)
prevents female reproductive structures from forming from the Mullerian (paramesonephric ducts)
- What secretes testosterone? What does this induce?
- Leydig cells
male reproductive structures form both internally and externally
- Name the structures that develop from the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct in males. What must be present for this to occur?
- epididymis, vas deferens, ejcaculatory duct, and seminal vesicle
androgens and functional receptors must be present
- What is androgen produced from?
- Leydig cells
- What does the prostate gland develop from?
- prostatic urethra (urogenital sinus endoderm)
- What does the stroma and smooth muscle of the male reproductive organs form from?
- What does the epithelium of the bulbourethral glands form from?
- spongy portion of urethra and CT and SM from mesenchyme
- What do the prostate and bulbourethral glands bud from? What do the seminal vesicles bud from?
- What allows the germ cells developed in the testes to exit the body? What does this bypass? What do they exit through?
- embryonic kidney structures
- Where are the gonads of both males and females initially located?
- posterior abdominal wall
- Name the two ligaments that the gonads are attached to.
- superior suspensory ligament and gubernculum
- What is the name of the evagination obliquely through the inferior abdominal wall in both sexes?
- inguinal canal
- What extends from the inferior pole of the gonad through the inguinal canal into the labioscrotal swellings?
- What is the extension of peritoneum that herniates through the abdominal wall following the path of the gubernaculum in males?
- processus vaginalis
- What does the processus vaginalis carry with it? What will is form?
- layers of the extensions of the abdominal wall
forms layers of the inguinal canal and in males the coverings of the spermatic cord and testis
- What forms the deep inguinal ring?
- opening in the transversalis fascia
- What forms the superficial inguinal ring?
- opening in the external oblique apooneurosis
- When do the testes normally migrate to the deep inguinal ring?
- by 7th month
- In females, what is the gubernaculum responsible for? What does it form?
- pulls ovaries into the pelvis and forms the proper ligament of the ovary and round ligament of the uterus
- Where does the gubernaculum extend to in females?
- labia magus
- What does testicular descent into the scrotum require?
- expression of a Leydig cell produced hormone
- What does the knocking out of Leydig insulin like hormone (Insl3) cause in mice?
- What do fetal Leydig cells secrete?
- Leydig-insulin like hormone
- What happens to the cranial suspensory ligament when exposed to androgens?
- it involutes
- What helps keep the ovaries in the pelvis?
- suspensory ligament of the ovary
- What is the condition when the testes fail to fully descend into the scrotum? What are clinical side effects to this condition?
-incidence of testicular tumors, infertility
- What is the condition of a persistent processus vaginalis, large enough to only permit passage of peritoneal fluid?
- What is the persistent processus vaginalis that allows herniation of intestine intot he scrotum?
- congenitla inguinal hernia
- Name the remnants of the mesonephric duct that may not undergo emplete apoptosis in females. What would these structures be buried by?
- paroophoron, epoophoron, duct of Gartner
- Name the male remnant(s) of the paramesonephric duct?
- appendix of the testis
- Name the 4 common embryonic structures that external genitalia develop from.
- genital tubercle, urogenital fold, urethral groove, labioscrotal (genital) swelling
- What forms from the genital tubercle (phallus) in females? males?
- In females, the unfused urogenital folds form what? males?
- labia minora
spongy urethra (penis body)
- In females,the unfused labioscrotal forms what? males?
- labia majora
- What do the glandular part of th epenis and termianl part of the penile urethra form from?
- In females, what does the urogenital groove form? males?
- -opening of urethra & vagina
-opening of urethra
- What is hypospadia? What causes it?
- when the opening of the urethra is on the ventral surface of the penis or scrotum
-failure of the fusion of the urogenital fold to meet in the midline
- What is epispadia?
- urethral opening on the dorsal surface of the penis
- Which is more common, hypospadia or epispadia?
- Describe the phenotype of testicular feminization. What is the genotype?
- individuals appear as phenotypic females despite the presence of testes in the labia majora
- What is the cause of testicular feminization?
- defective androgen receptor (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome)
- Describe the defect in Adrenal Virilizing Hyperplasia. What is the result?
- defect in cortisol pathway
results in excess production of anterior pituitary trophic hormones and an excessive stimulation of the adrenal fetal cortex.
- What does excessive stimulation of the fetal adrenal cortex lead to? What can this cause?
- androgen production
masculinization of the female genitales
- What is the genotype in Adrenal Virilizing Hyperplasia?
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from primordial germ cells.
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from indifferent gonads.
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from gubernaculum.
- f-proper ovarian ligament and round ligament of the uterus
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the mesonephric tubules.
- f-epoophoron and paroophoron
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct).
- f-duct of Gartner
m-appendix of epididymis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the ureteric bud.
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the paramesonephric duct (Mullerian duct).
- f-oviduct (Fallopian tube), uterus, proximal 4/5 of vagina, Hydatid of Morgagni
m-appendix of testis
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the urogenital sinus.
- f-urinary bladder, urethra, distal 1/5 of vagina, paraurethral glands (Skene's), greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's)
m-bladder, urethra (except navicular fossa), prostatic utricle, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland (Cowper's)
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the phallus (genital tubercle).
- f-clitoris, glans of clitoris, vestibular bulbs, corpora cavernosa clitoris, and corpus psongiosum clitoris
m-penis, glans, body corpora cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum of penis
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the urogenital folds.
- f-labia minora
m-ventral surface of penis
- Name the female and male structures that are derived from the labioscrotal swellings.
- f-labia majoria
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