Glossary of 3-The cellular organization of life
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- What are the 3 main parts of the cell?
- Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and the nucleus
- What is the plasma membrane?
- forms ouer surface of the cell, flexible layer of lipids and proteins, acts as a selectively permeable barrier.
- cell membranes are made up of what 3 types of lipids?
- phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids
- What are phopholipids?
- synthesized from long carbon-hydrogen chanins (fatty acids); diglycerides, 2 fatty acids attached to a 3 carbon glycerol, 3rd carbon has non-lipid group; hydrophobic heads and hydrophilic tails.
- hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
- phospholipid bilayer
- not solid; fluid bilayer
- Cell membranes are made up of:
- 25% phospholipids
- what does cholesterol do?
- helps maintain fluidity of the membrane
- Proteins serve as what on the membrane?
component of outer coating of cell
- what is glycocalyx?
- a component of the outer coating
- what are the functions of glycocalyx?
- 1. molecular signature of self
2. helps cells connect to each other
3. helps protect cells from damage
4. attracts water (reduces friction)
- What are the 2 categories of proteins?
- Integral proteins and peripheral proteins
- Integral proteins:
- transporters, ion channels
- peripheral proteins
- float on the surface, receptors
- electrical potential
- inside generally has a negative charge compared to the outside
- what are the 5 types of transport?
- diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and vesicular transport
- movement of substances from areas of high concentration to low concentration
- 6 factors that affect the rate of diffusion:
- 1. concetration difference (greater the concentration the faster the rate)
2. size of ion (smaller = faster)
3. distance (shorter=faster)
4. area (greater cross sectional = faster)
5. temperature (high = faster)
6. lipid solubility
- What is Osmosis?
- net movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute to region of high solute.
- Osmotic pressure
- the amount pressure that needs to e applied to keep the 2 sides equal
- total solute concentration in the solution
- isomotic (isotonic)
- same solute concentration
- hyposmotic (hypotonic)
- lower solute concentration
- hyperosmotic (hypertonic)
- higher solute concentration
- comparison of solute concentration
- facilitated diffusion
- movement of substance from areas of high concentration to low concentration via carrier.
- active transport
- movement of molecules against a concentration gradient (up hill); energy required; uses carrier
- what is cytosol?
- the intracellular fluid
- ingestion of minute quantities of extracellular fluid and dissolved substances into cell via small vesicles
- releases particles from inside the cel to outside
- what are organelles?
- structures that perfrm specific functions within a cell like organs perform specific functions in the body
- what is cytoplasm?
- the cytosol and organelles (not including the nucleus)
- cytosol has high ______, high concentration of ___, _______, and _____ for energy.
- Potassium (K+), proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
- organelles which provide cellular support; web of protein fibers that provide strength and flexibility to the cell.
- 4 components of the cytoskeleton
- microfilaments, intermediate filaments, thick filaments, and microtubules
- made up of actin, very thin, hold everything in place
- intermediate filaments
- prominent in parts of cell subject to mechanical stress, give strength, made up of keratin (rope like)
- thick filaments
- extra strength, myosin in muscles interact with actin to make muscles contract
- compused of tubulin, arranged to form hollow tubes, primary basis of cytoskeleton, anchors organelles, provides roadways, components of organelles.
- tube like structure of 9 triplets of 3 microtubules arranged in a ringm heart of cytoskeleton, microtubules radiate out from centrioles, cell reproduction- control chromosome movement
- breaks down glucose and use energy from burning the sugar to produce ATP; has a double membrane.
- folds of inner membrane
- mitochondrial matrix
- located inside the folds
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- network of membranes branching out from the nuclear envelope; important for synthesizing proteins, carbs, and lipids; storage and transportation for those molecules.
- Rough ER
- has ribosomes; synthesizes proteins
- smooth ER
- no ribosomes, important in synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates; synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis and storage of glycerides, detox of some drugs, synthesis of glycogen in muscle and liver cells, stores in muscle cells.
- golgi apparatus
- flattened membrane sacs (saccules); little bits of proteins break off and attch to golgi.
- forming face
- when the golgi apparatus is being formed
- medial cistenae
- where the proteins pass through and get modified
- what are the 3 types of vesicles at "maturing face"?
- secretory, new or additional membrane, and transport vesicles.
- perform the continuous destruction of unneeded, damaged, or incorrectly formed proteins
- enzymes that break down protein into small chunks
- control center of the cell; contains DNA
- how many chromosomes in the human cell?
- 23 pairs
- nuclear envelope
- nuclear membrane
- nuclear pores
- holes in the surface that allow things in and out of the cell
- hereditary information stored in codes for all processes; arranged in series down the chromosomes
- total of all you genetic information
- study of the relationships between the genome and the actual biological functions of an organism
- gene expression
- the process where a gene's DNA is used to direct the synthesis of a specfic protein
- what the strand wraps around to fit inside your cell
- 3 part organic molecules containing a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
- 5 nitrogenous bases
- adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
- Which nitrogenous base is only in DNA?
- Which nitrogenous base is only in RNA?
- What are the defined pairs of nitrogenous bases in our DNA?
- AT/ GC
- double ringed
- single ringed structures
- what are the 2 stages of gene expression?
- transcription and translation
- transfer of code from DNA to mRNA
- initiated when mRNA strand binds to light ribosomal subunit
- start here signal
- termination signal
- stop here
- junk DNA
- dont code for anything
- do code for something- make DNA
- Introns are removed by:
- small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs)
- triplets on the DNA strand; each codon specifies 1 amino acid
- complementary base sequence on tRNA strand
- division of the cell
- 5 stages in the life cycle of a cell:
- interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
- cells spends most of the time here growing
- G1 phase
- 1st gap; cell duplicating organelles and growing
- S phase
- synthesis; cell synthesises new DNA
- G2 phase
- cell growth, enzymes and proteins synthesized
- division of the nucleus and chromosomes
- chromatin condenses into chromosomes
- 1 strand of the chromosome
- keeps the 2 chromatids together
- mitotic spindle
- rope used to pull chromatids apart
- lines coming out
- chromosomes arranged so that centromeres all lie in one plane half way between spindle poles
- paired chromosomes separate; chromatids move toward the spindle pole
- separated daughter chromatids arrive a poles; nclear envelope reforms
- splitting the cell
- cleavage furrow
- indentation around cell
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