Glossary of 3-Organs in the Abdomen
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- What forms the visceral peritoneum of the gut wall?
- Name the layers of the GI tract?
- mucosa, submucosa, smooth muscle, serosa
- Name the foregut derivatives.
- esophagus, stomach, liver, GB, pancreas, biliary ducts, 1st half of duodenum
- Name the midgut derivatives.
- 2nd half of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
- Name the hindgut derivatives.
- distal 1/3 of transverse colon, descending, colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and upper 2/3 of anal canal
- Describe the innervation of the upper 1/3 of esophagus.
- PNS from the nerve of arch IV-cranial nerve X the vagus
- What type of muscle is the upper 1/3 of esophagus? What is it derived from?
- Describe the innervation of the lower 1/3 of esophagus.
- SNS from thoracic splanchnic nerves
- What type of muscle is the lower 1/3 of esphagus? What is it derived from?
- What vertebral levels does the esophagus correspond to?
- Which sphincter is located at the gastroesophageal junction?
- Which thoracic arterial branches supply the esophagus?
- inferior thyroid and aorta
- To what veins does the esophagus drain?
- inferior thyroid, azygos, hemiazygos & accessory
- What abdominal arterial branch supplies the esophagus?
- left gastric artery and inferior phrenic
- What is the condition when the gastroesophageal junction protrudes through the esophageal hiatus? What can alleviate the pain?
- hiatal hernia
sitting up from a supine position
- With portal vein hypertension, blood leading to the portal vein can be shunted to what vein (w/ respect to esophagus)?
- left gastric vein
- What is the condition of abnormal contractions at the lower esophagus (abscense of peristalsis)? Which part of the esophagus may atrophy?
- What do parietal cells secrete?
- HCl and intrinsic factor
- What do chief cells secrete?
- In what part of the stomach are the parietal and chief cells?
- What part of the stomach are the hormone-secreting cells located?
- Where is the primary location of the gastrin's G-cells?
- Which sphincter of the stomach (cardiac/pyloric) is a true sphincter?
- Does the greater omentum attach to the lesser or greater curvature?
- What is the greater omentum between?
- greater curvature and transverse colon (gastrocolic ligament)
- What is the lesser omentum between?
- lesser curvature and hilar area of liver
- What are the two ligaments that make up the lesser omentum?
- Describe the pattern of the rugae in the fundus and body. Is this the same as in the pyloric?
- criss-cross pattern in fundus and body
linear in pyloric antrum
- Which branch of the aorta supplies the foregut? What are its branches?
left gastric, common hepatic, splenic
- What does the left gastric artery supply?
- fundus, lesser curvature
- What does the common hepatic artery supply? (with regards to the stomach) What are the branches that provide this blood supply?
- pylorus & distal greater curvature and body
gastroduodenal artery and right gastoomental artery
- What does the splenic artery supply w/ regards to the stomach? (which branches provide this blood supply?
- short gastric A-fundus, proximal greater curvature
left gastroomental A-proximal greater curvature & body
- What veins does the blood from the stomach drain?
- splenic & SMV, some directly to portal vein
- What is the sympathetic innervation of the stomach? What does it regulate?
- thoracic splanchnic N to and through the celiac plexus
regulates gastric vasculature tone and response to pain
- What is the PNS of the stomach?
- gastric branches derived from continuations of the vagal trunks
- Where is the left vagal trunk found? Right? What causes this?
due to rotation of stomach
- Why is 'trunk' nomeclature of the vagus nerve used below the esophageal level?
- b/c there is mixing of R&L vagal N, can't tell separation
- What is located anteriorly to the stomach?
- left hemidiaphragm
- What is located posteriorly to the stomach-'bed of stomach'?
- spleen, gastrosplenic ligament, splenorenal ligament, pancreas, L kidney & suprarenal gland, transverse mesocolon & transverse colon
- Where are ulcers more common?
- Describe a Bilroth-I surgical procedure?
- removal of antrum and a vagotomy to reduce acid secretion
remaining proximal stomach is reattached to duodenum
- Describe a Bilroth-II surgical procedure?
- remain proximal stomach is reattached to jejunum and proximal duodenal segment is closed and left as a blind pouch
- What side effects can antrectomy & vagotomy lead too?
- rapid emptying of stomach
- In the stomach, where is carcinoma most frequent?
Describe how a metastices can travel?
- pyloric region
pyloric nodes to celiac nodes to main intestinal tunks and thoracic duct
- Displacement of the gastric bubble toward the right side of the abdominal cavity could indicate what?
- enlargement of spleen
- Describe the location of referred pain of the stomach? About what dermatomes?
- to epigastric region & back
- What is the largest lymphoid tissue mass in the body?
- What type of cells are present in the spleen?
- lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts
- What does the spleen arise from?
- mesenchymal cells, not endoderm
- What is the name of enlargemnt of the spleen?
- What is the location of the spleen? (Quadrant and region and ribs)
- ULQ, L hypochondriac region
internal to left ribs 9-11
- Which side of the spleen (medial/lateral) contains the hilum or pedicles)?
- What organ is within the layers of the splenorenal ligament?
- tail of pancreas
- Describe the vasculature of the spleen.
- splenic artery from celiac trunk
splenic vein drains into portal v
- Describe the innervation of the spleen.
- splenic nerve plexus from celiac plexus (esp greater thoracic splanchnics), L celiac ganglion & R vagus trunk
- Is the plexus innervating the spleen primarily parasympathetic or sympathetic?
- What is the pedicle of the spleen medially related to?
- tail of pancreas
- What is the spleen lateroposterior to?
- greater curvature of stomach
- What is the spleen anterolateral to?
- L kidney
- Is the spleen superior or inferior to the L colic flexure?
- What is the L costodiaphragmatic recess between?
- spleen and lower ribs
- Describe the pathway of dye if it is injected through a catheter into the celiac trunk.
- celiac trunk -> splenic artery -> spleen -> splenic vein -> portal vein
- Where is a needle biopsy of the spleen done?
- rib 10 passing through costodiaphragmatic recess
- Describe referred pain of the spleen.
- rather localized to LUQ
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