Glossary of 27Traditional Russia
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- Where did early Russian civilization begin?
- What is the name for the Viking groups that settled and mingled with the Russian Slavs?
- What Prince adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantines?
- Prince Vladimir.
- Prince Vladimir's grandmother and regent of Kiev, who converted to Christianity in Constantinople.
- The alphabet of Russia, based on Greek letters designed by Orthodox monks Cyril and Methodius.
- Shapes of the tops of Russian cathedrals like St. Sophia's
- Onion domes.
- Name for the Orthodox Church's split with the Catholic Church in 1054.
- the Schism.
- Who wrote down Kievan Rus' first laws?
- Yaroslav the Wise.
- This group, known as the Tatars or Golden Horde, destroyed Kiev Rus and ruled Russians as part of their huge Asian Empire.
- The Mongols.
- The Russian Orthodox Church reestablished their church's power in this Russian city where the princes rose after the destruction of Kiev.
- This leader annexed Novgorod and extended Russian territory northward.
- Ivan the Great.
- This leader was known for his cruelty, annexation of Siberia, enslaving of peasants and use of oprichnina to terrorize his people.
- Ivan the Terrible.
- Ivan the Terrible confiscated the lands of these nobles.
- Who are the boyars?
- The council consulted in times of trouble.
- Zemskii Sobor.
- The Zemskii Sobor elects him as the first Romonov czar.
- Michael Romanov (1613-1645)
- This man created a modern Russian army and navy, brought back experts from the West, and subjugated the Church and those who opposed him. He built a city with access to the Baltic Sea after war with Sweden.
- Czar Peter the Great.
- This German born czarina was a reader of Enlightenment works. She wrote to some of the greatest minds in Western Europe, including Voltaire. She expanded Russian territory southward to the Black Sea.
- Catherine the Great.
- This Czar began as a liberal but ended autocratically.
- Alexander I.
- This czar behaved autocratically and despotically and crushed the Decembrist Revolution of 1825.
- Nicholas I.
- This czar abolished serfdom but failed to grant them any serious rights. He was assassinated by extremists.
- 1855-1881 Alexander II.
- This czar was harsh after his father's assassination but led early industrial and capitalist enterprises. (1881-94)
- Alexander III
- The last czar was a good family man, but ruled autocratically, reversing reforms he granted in 1905 and 1917. He led Russia into World War I. He was executed with his family in 1918.
- Nicholas II.
- The meaning of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism", the Romanov motto.
- Orthodoxy: czar is head of church and state.
Autocracy: czar is an absolute monarch.
Nationalism: repress minorities, promote Russian culture, language, traditions.
- The word for persecution of the Jews living in Russia in the 1880s.
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