Glossary of 26Evolution of English Democracy
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- In 1066, who led the Norman Conquest of England at the Battle of Hastings?
- William of Normandy (aftewards known as "William the Conqueror)
- What did William do to centralize his power when he took over the throne of England?
- (1) He made everyone pledge their FIRST allegiance to HIM, not their local lord or noble.
(2) He had a census done of all property and people in England so he could centralize taxes
- What was the name of William's census of everything possible to tax?
- The Domesday (pronounced dooms day) Book.
- Edward I created a custom of meeting with the lords and clergy on one side and the townspeople and knights on the other. What was this called?
- Model Parliament (it became the basis of the British modern two house parliament).
- What king was forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215?
- King John I.
- What actions of John's had upset the nobility?
- He raised taxes without permission. He led several failed war campaigns. He arrested and imprisoned people without following the law. He failed to follow English traditions.
- What did King John's forced signing of the Magna Carta show?
- That the KING is NOT above the law. That other people's traditional rights must be respected.
- What are the roots of English common law?
- Henry II sent out royal court justices and eventually, the king's laws became "common law" to all.
- What kind of jury originated with Henry II's juries?
- Grand juries - they hear evidence to determine if there is enough for a trial.
- What Scottish Catholic family came to power after the death of Tudor Queen Elizabeth I?
- The Stuarts.
- What did Charles I believe justified anything he wanted to do as king of England?
- Divine Right - the king is god's lieutenant on earth - the king is above the law.
- Who were the "Round heads"?
- The Puritan (Protestant) members of Parliament who were against King Charles I.
- Who led the "Roundheads" and Parliament?
- Oliver Cromwell.
- What did Charles I do to inflame the Parliament against him?
- He dissolved Parliament at will.
He signed the Petition of Right 1628 and then ignored it. He ignored the rights of the members of Parliament. He threw people in jail without cause.
- Who won the English Civil War, the King's Cavaliers or the Roundheads and Cromwell?
- The Roundheads and Cromwell.
- What happened to Charles I?
- He was executed.
- How did Cromwell run the government of England during the "kingless decade"?
- He started as a republic or commonwealth but eventually ruled more and more harshly as a military dictatorship.
- When Cromwell died, who did the English turn to again?
- The Stuart Kings: Charles II was "restored to power".
- What was the first thing Charles II did to make himself popular as ruler of England?
- Opened the pubs.
- When Charles II died, James II came to power. What was he like?
- Like Charles I, he believed in Divine Right, absolutism, and that only his religion -- Catholicism should prevail.
- What was the "Glorious Revolution"?
- It was a bloodless revolution in which the king (James II) was deposed and William and Mary came to power.
- What did William and Mary have to do to become rulers of England?
- They had to sign the "Bill of Rights" (1689).
- What rights were affirmed by the Bill of Rights?
- Habeas Corpus (no arrest without cause/ evidence); Parliament has the power of the purse; the king isn't above the law.
- Over time, what group of advisors developed out of Parliament to advise the king?
- The Cabinet.
- Over time, which house of Parliament grew in power?
- The House of Commons (common people).
- What power does the House of Lords have today?
- Only to delay legislature, not stop it.
- What did the reform bills of the 1800s do in English government?
- They extended voting rights and fairer, more equal rights to more and more groups: farmers, working men, urban dwellers got better representation.
- What last group got their rights in the 1920s?
- What is a parliamentary democracy?
- The main representation and law making body is Parliament.
- What is a limited or constitutional monarch?
- His or her powers are limited by law.
- What English Enlightenment writer influenced Thomas Jefferson with his ideas about the "social contract" and "rights of man"?
- John Locke.
- What French writer always got in trouble standing up for freedom of speech during the Enlightenment?
- What French noble wrote "the Spirit of the Laws" in which he identified separation of powers (checks and balances) as important to governments?
- Baron de Montesquieu
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