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Glossary of 25Political Systems Introduction

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What is a polis (Greek word)?
A city-state.
What was the name for the high hill top where the temples to the gods and goddess were built?
The Acropolis.
Name three famous ancient Greek philosophers.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Who was the statesman who supported democracy as the best form of government?
Pericles - the Age of Pericles is Athens' golden age. He once said "A man who doesn't participate in govern-ment isn't harmless - he's USELESS."
What was Sparta's form of government like?
It was made up of two kings, an advisory council, five ephors and the Assembly.
What is a monarchy?
A government by hereditary ruler such as a king, queen or emperor.
What was the aristocracy?
The landowners and nobles (elites)
What were the qualifications for citizenship in Athens?
over 30, male citizen (native born)
Was was the name for the members of the Athenian Assembly who were selected by lot and ran day to day affairs?
The Council of 500.
What did Spartans do when a baby was born?
A group examined the child's health. If it was sickly or frail, it was left out to die.
Who said "a man who refuses to participate in government isn't harmless -- he's USELESS."
PERICLES
At age 7, what was education like for Sparta boys?
They were taken from their families to live in barracks; forced into strict discipline and exercise; and fed inadequate diets. (so they would learn stealth as they learned to sneak up and swipe food).
What did Athenian youth study?
Young men studied poetry, music, rhetoric (public speaking), military and physical training, philosophy, math, etc.
What was the purpose of women in Spartan society?
To keep in shape and be strong to bear strong male babies for the military.
What was the duty of women in Athens?
To stay at home, run the household, raise the children.
What was an oligarchy?
Government of the few - typically the businessmen, merchants, etc.
Was was Socrates famous for?
The Socratic method - asking questions of the student to get him to think out the answer for himself!
What Idealist and Greek philosopher believed in the Golden Mean and in the Republic, wrote of a philosopher king and philosophers ruling over the soldiers and farmers?
Plato
Who was the philosopher who focused on Realism and created a Lyceum, or school, that taught many different subjects and was the basis of medieval universities centuries later?
Aristotle.
What happened to the messengers from King Darius of Persia, demanding that Athens and Sparta surrender?
They were thrown in a pit and a well.
This Olympic event commemorates the 26.2 miles that an ancient Athenian ran to announce that they were victorious over the Persians?
The Marathon.
When the Persians finally conquered the Athenians, who later conquered them all, originally from Macedonia?
Alexander the Great.
What do we call the years that Alexander the Great spread the greatness of Athenian ideas and Greek culture all the way to Egypt, Asia Minor, Persia and India?
The Hellenistic Age.
Name two groups who lived on the Appennine Peninsula (Italy) before the Roman Republic?
Latins and Etruscans.
What is a republic?
It is a representative democracy - people are selected as officials to represent them.
What was the name of the lawmaking body of the Roman Republic?
The Senate.
What was the veto?
The right to halt or stop a law.
What was the name for the laws of Rome?
The Twelve (12) Tables (Tablets) of Law
What Roman Rulers ended the Roman Republic and led to the Roman Empire?
Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus.
From what ruler to what rule is the Pax Romana (Roman Peace)?
From Augustus to Marcus Aurelius.
What did the ancient Romans borrow (cultural diffusion) from the ancient Greeks?
The gods and goddesses; the architecture; styles of art.
What two Roman styles of architecture continued in the Islamic, Byzantine and even Medieval World?
The Arch and the Dome.
What religion rose as the Roman empire fell?
Christianity.
What were some problems as Rome switched to Empire?
(1) increased use of slave labor made
Roman farmers unemployed
(2) Roman unemployed rioted in the
streets unless entertained by
bread and circuses
(3) Corruption, bribery in government/
loss of Roman patriotism and duty.
What empire preserved the legacy of Roman law and culture as well as served as a buffer zone until Western Europe recovered from the Dark Ages?
The Byzantine Empire
What Byzantine Emperor preserved Roman law in the Corpus Juris Civilis?
Justinian.

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