Glossary of 25Political Systems Introduction
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- What is a polis (Greek word)?
- A city-state.
- What was the name for the high hill top where the temples to the gods and goddess were built?
- The Acropolis.
- Name three famous ancient Greek philosophers.
- Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
- Who was the statesman who supported democracy as the best form of government?
- Pericles - the Age of Pericles is Athens' golden age. He once said "A man who doesn't participate in govern-ment isn't harmless - he's USELESS."
- What was Sparta's form of government like?
- It was made up of two kings, an advisory council, five ephors and the Assembly.
- What is a monarchy?
- A government by hereditary ruler such as a king, queen or emperor.
- What was the aristocracy?
- The landowners and nobles (elites)
- What were the qualifications for citizenship in Athens?
- over 30, male citizen (native born)
- Was was the name for the members of the Athenian Assembly who were selected by lot and ran day to day affairs?
- The Council of 500.
- What did Spartans do when a baby was born?
- A group examined the child's health. If it was sickly or frail, it was left out to die.
- Who said "a man who refuses to participate in government isn't harmless -- he's USELESS."
- At age 7, what was education like for Sparta boys?
- They were taken from their families to live in barracks; forced into strict discipline and exercise; and fed inadequate diets. (so they would learn stealth as they learned to sneak up and swipe food).
- What did Athenian youth study?
- Young men studied poetry, music, rhetoric (public speaking), military and physical training, philosophy, math, etc.
- What was the purpose of women in Spartan society?
- To keep in shape and be strong to bear strong male babies for the military.
- What was the duty of women in Athens?
- To stay at home, run the household, raise the children.
- What was an oligarchy?
- Government of the few - typically the businessmen, merchants, etc.
- Was was Socrates famous for?
- The Socratic method - asking questions of the student to get him to think out the answer for himself!
- What Idealist and Greek philosopher believed in the Golden Mean and in the Republic, wrote of a philosopher king and philosophers ruling over the soldiers and farmers?
- Who was the philosopher who focused on Realism and created a Lyceum, or school, that taught many different subjects and was the basis of medieval universities centuries later?
- What happened to the messengers from King Darius of Persia, demanding that Athens and Sparta surrender?
- They were thrown in a pit and a well.
- This Olympic event commemorates the 26.2 miles that an ancient Athenian ran to announce that they were victorious over the Persians?
- The Marathon.
- When the Persians finally conquered the Athenians, who later conquered them all, originally from Macedonia?
- Alexander the Great.
- What do we call the years that Alexander the Great spread the greatness of Athenian ideas and Greek culture all the way to Egypt, Asia Minor, Persia and India?
- The Hellenistic Age.
- Name two groups who lived on the Appennine Peninsula (Italy) before the Roman Republic?
- Latins and Etruscans.
- What is a republic?
- It is a representative democracy - people are selected as officials to represent them.
- What was the name of the lawmaking body of the Roman Republic?
- The Senate.
- What was the veto?
- The right to halt or stop a law.
- What was the name for the laws of Rome?
- The Twelve (12) Tables (Tablets) of Law
- What Roman Rulers ended the Roman Republic and led to the Roman Empire?
- Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus.
- From what ruler to what rule is the Pax Romana (Roman Peace)?
- From Augustus to Marcus Aurelius.
- What did the ancient Romans borrow (cultural diffusion) from the ancient Greeks?
- The gods and goddesses; the architecture; styles of art.
- What two Roman styles of architecture continued in the Islamic, Byzantine and even Medieval World?
- The Arch and the Dome.
- What religion rose as the Roman empire fell?
- What were some problems as Rome switched to Empire?
- (1) increased use of slave labor made
Roman farmers unemployed
(2) Roman unemployed rioted in the
streets unless entertained by
bread and circuses
(3) Corruption, bribery in government/
loss of Roman patriotism and duty.
- What empire preserved the legacy of Roman law and culture as well as served as a buffer zone until Western Europe recovered from the Dark Ages?
- The Byzantine Empire
- What Byzantine Emperor preserved Roman law in the Corpus Juris Civilis?
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