Glossary of 22Matthew C. Perry and Meiji Modernization
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- Who sailed into Edo (Tokyo) Bay with his naval warships belching black smoke and terrifying the Japanese in 1853?
- American Naval Commodore Matthew C. Perry.
- Why did the U.S. want Japan to open its doors to trade?
- The US needed a place to refuel ships after crossing the Pacific. It wanted Japan to stop executing shipwrecked sailors. It wanted a sphere of influence similar to Britain's in China.
- What was the name of the U.S. attempts to have equal trade opportunities and force Japan to open to trade?
- The Open Door Policy.
- In 1867, what happened that demonstrated that the Japanese were willing to change?
- The last shogun was forced to abdicate and accept blame for being unable to protect Japan from the power of the West.
- Who was restored to more power than he had had in centuries?
- The Emperor - Emperor MEIJI (real name: Mutsuhito)took the throne in 1868.
- What political changes were made in Japan during the Meiji Restoration period?
- (1) a Constitution was created in 1889 as a gift to the Japanese people by the Emperor; (2) a Western style Diet (legislature) was created but had very limited powers (much weaker than Congress in the US or Parliament in Britain).
- What military changes occurred during the Meiji Restoration (Modernization)?
- (1) It's army was based on Prussia's army; (2) It's navy was based on the British navy; (3) the military leaders only had to report to the Emperor.
- What economic changes occurred in Meiji Japan?
- (1) Industrial revolution and industrialization throughout Japan; (2) postal system and banks modernized; (2) Zaibatsu (powerful corporation families) grew.
- Where did samurai and other Japanese advisors go to study modern techniques?
- They studied modern industry, military and financial institutions in American and Europe.
- What are the Zaibatsu corporations of Japan?
- They are powerful family-controlled commercial corporations of Japan.
- Why do we call Japan's economy a mixed one if it borrows so much capitalism from the West?
- The Japanese government strongly supported and helped Japanese businesses get the raw materials and markets they needed.
- What geographic challenge was a problem as Japan modernized and industrialized?
- Japan's lack of natural resources, arable and energy would lead toward aggressive miltarism.
- What were two early conflicts that showed Japan's military were going to be used to expand to grab resources and land in 1894-95 and 1904-05?
- (1) 1894-1895 was the Sino (Chinese)-Japanese War, which gave Japan ports and control in Manchuria; (2) the Russo-Japanese War, which was the first time an Asian nation defeated a European one (Russia).
- What U.S. President negotiated Peace treaties between Japan and China/Russia?
- Teddy Roosevelt.
- How did Japan's remarkable modernization happen?
- (1) Government incentives for businesses to use western technology; (2) Japan's homogeneous culture (common culture, language, hard-work ethic, etc.); (3) Japan's tradition of borrowing and adapting from other nations.
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