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Glossary of 21Japan Economics Unit Part 2

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What is Japan's native religion?
Shinto - it means the way of the gods.
Why is Japan called the land of the rising sun?
(1) It is Farthest East Asia
(2) The Emperor's Yamato clan claims to be descended from the Sun Goddess Ameratsu.
What large neighbor was the source of lots of early cultural borrowing in early Japanese history?
CHINA.
What religion came from China through Korea and gradually mixed with Shinto?
Buddhism.
What did Japanese diplomats bring back from T'ang dynasty China?
Written language, dress, food, rituals and beliefs.
In 604, Japanese Prince Shotoku Taishi created a central authority based on laws related to what to what Chinese ideas?
Confucian ideas of social order and government.
What was the name of the Chinese style first capital of Japan?
Nara (710 CE).
What was the second capital in Japan founded in 794 and the name of a great period of Japanese cultural flourishing?
Heian (794 CE).
Who were Japanese Heian figures Sei Shonagon and Murasaki Shikubu?
Sei Shonagon was a poet who wrote about court life in The Pillow Book. Murasaki Shikubu wrote the Tales of Genji (the world's first novel that told of life among court nobles).
During the Heian period, the emperor ruled the city, but who ruled in the countryside?
The great clans (uji).
By the 11th Century, the imperial (emperor's) court power crumbled and a miliary family rose to power. What was their name?
Fujiwara. This family controlled the country and ste up feudal estates.
What is the name for the feudal lords of Japan in the 11th century?
Daimyos (DAI-MEE-yos)
What was the name for the vassal knights who served their feudal lords?
Samurai.
What was the name of the chief military commander of all Japan?
Shogun.
From top to bottom, what are the four social classes of feudal Japan?
Samurai, Peasants, Artisans, Merchants.
Around 1000 CE, agricultural revolution caused population growth and Japanese began to live in what areas?
Urban or City areas.
What is the name for the code of honor or chivalry that Japanese samurai lived and died by?
Bushido - the Way of the Warrior.
After a Civil War in Japan in the 12th century, who became Shogun and set up military alliances of daimyo?
MINAMOTO YORITOMO (119201199) became SHOGUN.
What did the Emperor's position become?
A symbolic leader - a figurehead with no real power.
What blends into the Honor Code of Bushido?
Chivalry, Confucian military discipline, and Zen Buddhist concentration.
What happened when the Yuan (Mongol) Emperor of China, Kublai Khan, tried to invade Japan with his ships?
Twice his fleets were sunk by violent taifuns that legend calls kamikaze (divine winds).
In 1603, a new family rose to power out of one feudal clan or family. Who were they?
The Tokugawa Shogunate.
Where did the Tokugawa Shogun move the capital in Japan?
Edo (TOKYO)
How did the Tokugawa Shogun keep order and peace in his society?
(1) Centralized feudalism
(2) Hostage system - all daimyos had to keep their families in the shogun's castle, and they themselves lived there much of the time.
In 1639, the Tokugawa Shoguns made clear that they would no longer tolerate Christianity and foreign influences . . . what laws did they pass?
The Tokugawan Seclusion Acts. These laws outlawed Christianity, ordered Japanese living abroad never to return, and foreigners to leave Japan.
What was the only port that still allowed foreigners to come and trade, although closely guarded?
Nagasaki.
How did society change under the Tokugawa Isolation Period?
Japanese society became static and social classes became hereditary.
Although trade outside of Japan was forbidden, how did the economy change?
(1) trade within Japan grew and flourished. (2) urbanization continued. (3) merchants, though the bottom class, grew rich providing goods for the daimyo.
Name two theater forms that developed in Tokugawa Japan.
NOH Theater (Zen Buddhist themes, masks, pantomime)
KABUKI Theater (comedy, drama, music)
What poetry form developed in Tokugawa Japan?
Haiku.
What happened to Japan during the Tokugawa Shogun period (compared to Western Europe and USA - the West)?
It fell behind and became old fashioned. The Samurai weren't needed as warriors and became administrators and philosophers.

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