Glossary of 20th Century American History-part 1
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- What is history?
- The memory of things said and done
- Who coined the term "industrial revolution"?
- Arnold Toynbee
- Industrial Revolution
- All of the changes that occured as:
powered machines were replaced with
- Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
- Great Britain
- What was the first steam powered machine?
- Water pump
- What was the first steam powered machine used in?
- Mining industry
- Who invented the first steam powered machine?
- James Watt
- What happened as a result of the first steam powered machine being invented?
- Factory system replaced the "putting out" or "domestic" system.
- What are the "putting out" and "domestic" systems?
- Systems of production
- What is a factory?
- A building that contains both machines and workers
- What happened as a result of the factory systems replacing the domestic system?
- What is urbanization?
- Growth of cities
- Why did so much urbanization occur?
- Farmers wanted the jobs in factories.
- What happened as a result of urbanization?
- Changes in living conditions
Changes in working conditions
Changes in transporation
- What were some of the changes in living conditions?
- Space (shared apartments)
Massive spread of disease
- What were some of the changes in working conditions?
- Couldn't choose their own hours
Overworking - 16 hr/day, 6 day/week = 96 hr/week
No minimum wage
No unemployment comensation
No safety regulations
- What were the two biggest parts of the change in transportation?
- Steam locomotive
- Who was the inventor of the steam locomotive?
- Richard Trevithick
- What were the benefits of the steam locomotive?
- Transport more people, faster, cheaper.
30 people, 500 tons, 8 mph
- Who was the inventor of the steam boat?
- Robert Fulton
- What was the name of the first steam boat?
- "The Clermont"
- What were the three main facets of progressivism?
- 1. The belief that recognized problems in America
2. The belief that things could get better.
3. Action was necessary to make things better
- What were people called who wanted to "make things better"?
- Muckrakers consisted primarily of...
- Who was a primary muckraker?
- Lincoln Stephens
- What did Lincoln Stephens do?
- Traveled from city to city to study politics
- What magazine did Lincoln Stephens write for?
- What conclusion did Lincoln Stephens come to?
- Politics as a whole is extremely corrupt
- What book compiled Stephens' articles from McClure's?
- "The Shame of the Cities"
- The Social Gospel Reformers consisted mostly of...
- What was the name of the book that revolutionized America in the late 1800s?
- What Would Jesus Do? In His Steps
- Who wrote the book that revolutionized America in the late 1890s?
- Charles Sheldon
- What was the main organization that was a part of the Social Gospel Reformers?
- The Salvation Army
- Who founded the Salvation Army?
- William Booth
- Where was the Salvation Army Founded?
- What were the places that supported immigrants and helped learn the language/culture etc. called?
- Settlement houses
- What was one of the most prominant settlement houses and where was it located?
- "Hull House"
- Who founded the "Hull House"
- Jane Addams
- Why did most immigrants come?
- To make more money and go back home
- How were settlement houses funded?
- Charitable contributions
- What was the Women's Suffrage Movement?
- Movement that pleaded for the Women's right to vote
- Right to vote
- Why did people think it was wrong for women to vote?
- 1. Women's sphere of influence is in the home
2. Women are to pure to be exposed to the dirty world of politics
- Why did people think it was right for women to vote?
- 1. Our constitution stands for equality
2. Women's purity may help "clean up" the dirty world of politics
- What was the women's suffrage association called?
- National America Woman Suffrage Association
- Who formed the NAWSA?
- Anna Shaw
- What gave women the right to vote?
- 19th Amendment in 1920
- Who first created communism?
- Karl Marx
- Where was Karl Marx from?
- Great Britain
- What is capitalism?
- System of using money to make money
- What do communists believe that the root of our problems is?
- What were the two groups that Marx defined?
- What were the two books written by Marx?
- "The Communist Manifesto"
- What did the Proletariat represent?
- Common working people
- What did the Bourgeosie represent?
- Owners, elite etc
- According to Marx, history is a series of what?
- Class struggles
- What was the class struggle represented in the 1900s?
- Between the Proletariat and the Bourgeosie
- Why did Marx think capitalism was ethically wrong?
- 1. The people who work the most get paid the least
2. The people who work the least get paid the most
- What happens to the classes as time goes on?
- More and more are added to the Proletariat and less and less to the Bourgeosie
- Why are there changes in the numbers of people in the Proletariat and the Bourgeosie?
- 1. Big businesses ran smaller ones out of business
2. Big businesses bought smaller ones out of business
- What would eventually happen to change things, according to Marx?
- Revolution of the Proletariat
- What did Marx think the masses would try to gain control of?
- What would be truly created once Revolution of the Proletariat was completed?
- What is Communism?
- A society without:
Individual owndership of property
- What must be addressed before society can progress?
- Inherent wrongness
- Why isn't the Solviet Union a communist nation?
- People in the communist party have special priviledges
- What is closely related to Communism?
- Who are socialists?
- People who want businesses to be owned/controlled by the government
- What would the government see to in Socialism?
- Profits aren't made, businesses just break even
- How could socialism be accomplished?
- 1. Pass laws
- What was the Temperance movement?
- A movement to ban alcohol
- What did the people supporting the Temperance movement think it would be?
- A Panacea
- What is a Panacea?
- What were the benefits of banning alcohol?
- People would have more money
Crime would be reduced
Homeless would be fewer
Child/spouse abuse would decrease
- What Amendment banned alcohol? and When was it?
- 18th Amendment in 1918
- What was the time that alcohol was banned called?
- Why didn't the prohibition/temperance movement work?
- People didn't stop drinking, but got alcohol from illegal sources.
- How long was alcohol banned?
- 15 years
- When was alcohol made legal after the prohibition?
- What Amendment repealed the ban on alcohol?
- The 21st
- What was the point of "Political reformers"?
- "Clean up" politics
- What were the three actions taken to clean up politics?
- 1. Secret Ballot
2. Recall Elections
3. Primary Elections
- What was the alternative to a secret ballot?
- Publicly voting
- What's the problem with publicly voting?
- You could lose your job if you didn't vote for the person your boss wanted in office
- What is a recall?
- It's when the people pull someone from office due to bad job performance.
- What is the alternative to Primary Elections?
- A dozen rich guys picking who the candidates are
- What was one of America's most important elections?
- The election of 1912.
- What did the Republicans have the most trouble with in the election of 1912?
- Deciding which candidate should run
- Who were the Republican choices in the Primaries of 1912?
- William Taft
- Who was the democratic choice in the election of 1912?
- Woodrow Wilson
- Why did William Taft run?
- He was the sitting president
- Why did Roosevelt challange Taft?
- He didn't like the way he did things
- What position did Woodrow Wilson hold before running for president?
- Governer of New Jersey
- Which Republican won the primaries?
- William Taft
- What did Roosevelt do when he didn't win the primaries?
- Made his own party
- What was Roosevelt's party officially called?
- "Progressive Party"
- What did Roosevelt's political party become known as?
- "Bull Moose Party"
- Who won the election of 1912?
- Woodrow Wilson
- Why was the election of 1912 won by the man it was won by?
- Republican votes were split between Taft and Roosevelt
- What did not exist until Wilson became president?
- Federal Income Tax
- What was one of the first things Wilson did in his presidency?
- Asked Congress to pass the Underwood-Simmons Tarrif
- What did the Underwood-Simmons Tariff seek to do?
- Lower the tariff
- What is a tariff?
- Tax on imported goods
- What was the point of a Tariff?
- To get people to buy american goods
- What is Amanda's Last name?
- Why did the Underwood-Simmons Tariff want to lower taxes on imported goods?
- 1. Wanted people to buy imported goods in order to increase compition
2. Wanted to help the working class by lowering the price of goods
- Was the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Passed/
- What was the result of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff being passed?
- government didn't collect as much money, so had to start collecting income tax.
- What allowed the government to have income tax and when was it passed?
- The 16th Amendment, in 1913.
- What was the piviotal event that led up to the beginnings of WWI?
- Assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
- What was the importance of Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
- He was heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
- Who was on the throan of Austria-Hungary when Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assasinated?
- Francis Joseph
- Where was Archduke Francis Ferdinand shot?
- How were Francis Ferdinand and Francis Joseph related?
- Francis Joseph was Francis Ferdinand's uncle.
- Where is Sarajevo?
- What country had Sarajevo fallen under control of?
- What country wanted Bosnia to be under its control?
- How was the Archduke Francis Ferdinand killed?
- A bomb was throne at his vehicle, and it got lost and a terrorist shot him.
- What terrorist group killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
- The Black Hand
- Who was the terrorist that shot Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
- Gavrilo Princip
- Who was the terrorist group that shot the Archduke funded by?
- How did Austria-Hungary respond to the killing of the Archduke?
- Consulted Germany and then declared war on Serbia
- Who was the leader of Germany at the time the Archduke was shot?
- Kaiser Wilhelm II
- How did Germany respond to Austria-Hungary?
- They handed them a "blank check"
- What was Germany's military status?
- One of the strongest countries on earth
- What did Serbia do when Austria-Hungary declared war?
- Turned to Russia for help
- What was Russia's history of helping its allies?
- Had refused 2 times in the past 20 years
- What was Russia's response to Serbia?
- Agreed to help and began moblizing troops
- How did Germany respond to Russia?
- Told them to stop mobilizing and stop supporting Serbia
- What did Germany DO in response to Russia?
- Declared war on it
- Who was Russia's ally?
- What did Germany say to France?
- Stop mobilizing
- What did Germany do in response to France?
- Declared war
- What was Germany's plan?
- The Schlieffen Plan
- What two things would the Schlieffen Plan do?
- 1. Knock France out immediately
2. Take on Russia
- What was the main problem with the Schlieffen Plan?
- Germany would have to send troops through Belgium.
- What was Belgium's response to Germany?
- Refused to let them send troops through
- Why did Belgium refuse to allow Germany through?
- They wanted to remain neutral
- What did Germany do when Belgium wouldn't allow troops through?
- Attacked it and defeated with a few hours
- What was Great Britain's response to Germany because of their attack on Belgium?
- Declared war on Germany
- What was America's longstanding policy when it came to European wars?
- Who began Isolationism?
- George Washington
- When was Isolationism first introduced (in what context)?
- "Washington's Farewell Address"
- How long did America stay out of the war?
- The first 3 years
- Why was it difficult for the US to stay neutral (4 reasons) ?
- 1. People naturally choose sides (ethnic background, etc.)
2. Respect for Great Britian (we wanted to have the same political values as GB)
3. Economic ties with the Allies (Wouldn't be able to pay us back if conquered)
4. Germany began using Submarine warfare
- Who are considered to be "The Allies"?
- Great Britain, France, Russia
- Who had the World's greatest Navy?
- Great Britain
- What did Germany do with their Submarine warfare?
- Sank all ships as they approached Great Britain
- What ship was sunk that had hundreds of civilians on it?
- What was the positive side of the sinking of the Lusitania?
- It made the Germans look really bad, so they stopped using Submarine warfare
- What were the three main groups of people in the US as the war began?
- 1. Pacifists (Stay out of the war at all costs)
2. People who believed in preparedness (prepare, but stay out for now)
3. Interventionists: America should go to war
- Who ran in the election of 1916?
- Woodrow Wilson
Charls Even Hughes
- What group was Charles Evan Hughes a part of?
- What group was Woodrow Wilson a part of (war)?
- What was the slogan that helped Wilson to win the 1916 election?
- "He kept us out of war!"
- How much later after winning the election did Wilson ask Congress to declare war?
- 5 months
- What 3 things happened within the 5 months of Wilson being re-elected?
- 1. The Zimmerman Telegram was recepted
2. Germans: Unrestricted submarine warfare
3. Tremendous economic ties
- Who sent the Zimmerman Telegram?
- Arthur Zimmerman, foreign minister of Germany
- Who intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram?
- Great Britian
- What did the Zimmerman telegram say and to whom was it sent?
- It was sent to Mexico and it said that if the US enters the war, Mexico should attack the US.
- What was the American response to the Zimmerman Telegram?
- It made them very angry at Germany
- What did the Germans do shortly after Wilson was re-elected?
- Declared Unrestricted submarine warfare
- What did the Germans say about their unrestricted submarine warfare?
- Any ship going to any Allied Country will be sunk without warning
- What happened in 1917?
- The war came to a stalemate
- What was a big part of the stalemate and how long did it last?
- Both sides in Western Europe had dug trenches, and didn't do much of anything.
- What was Germany's main point in sinking ships?
- Deplete the supplies of the Allies
- What were the tremendous economic ties?
- US had sold millions of dollars worth of supplies to the Allies, but they didn't have cash to pay for it
- What happened on April 6, 1917?
- Congress declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary
- Who from the US declared war on Austria-Hungary?
- What is one of the first steps that has to be taking after the US declares war?
- The government has to "sell the war" to the people
- What were the four ways the Government tried to sell the war to people?
- 1. Idealistic Goals
2. Helped set up social groups
3. Government passed laws
- What were the three Idealistic goals that the government used to "sell the war" to the people?
- 1. War to end all wars
2. War to make the world safe for Democracy
3. Peace without victory
- What were the two main social groups that the US setup?
- 1. Boy Spies of America
2. Girl Spies of America
- What were the two laws that the Government passed in attempt to "sell the war" to the people?
- 1. Sedition Act
2. Espionage Act
- What was the Sedition Act?
- Act that made it illegal to criticize the government
- What was the Espionage Act?
- Act that made it illegal to mail seditious material.
- Who was the postmaster general at the time of the Espionage Act?
- Albert Sydney
- How was the Espionage Act carried out?
- Searching people's mail
- What was the main group involved in Propaganda?
- Committee of Public Information
- Who was the founder of the Committee of Public Information?
- George Creel
- What did the Committee of Public Information do?
- Put out ads in nearly every newspaper, posters, pamphlets etc.
- What was the cost for WWI?
- $32 Billion
- What was the annual federal budget?
- $1 Billion
- What did the government do to pay for the war?
- 1. Raised Taxes
2. Took loans from the people
- What form were the loans from the people in?
- War bonds
- How did the government pay off war bonds?
- Raising Taxes
- What group helped suppor the American Economy in WWI?
- War Industries Board
- Who was the founder of the War Industries Board?
- Bernard Baruch
- What did the War Industries Board do?
- Attempted to control American industry to ensure America had the supplies needed to fight
- How did the War Industries Board get companies to help?
- What regulations did the owners of factories have to follow if they agreed to help the War Industries Board?
- ...what type
- Why did factory owners want to voluneer to help the War Industries Board?
- The price was often 25% more than the market.
- Who moved in the Great Migration?
- Where did people move from and to in the Great Migration?
- Blacks moved from Southern US to Northern US
- Why did the Great Migration take place?
- Explain the term Push-Pull
- Push: Blacks were being pushed out of the south due to lack of jobs and racism
Pull: Blacks were being pulled to the North due to good jobs in factories.
- What act pushed Women into the workforce?
- Selective Service Act
- What act issued a draft?
- Selective Service Act
- Define Boom Time
- Good time for the American Economy
- What two war fronts existed in 1917-18?
- Western Europe (France and Great Britain Vs. Germany)
Eastern Europe (Russia Vs. Germany)
- What was the problem for Germany fighting on two fronts?
- They had to split up their men
- What revolution in Russia helped to bring out the end of the war?
- Bolshevik Revolution
- Who were the Bolsheviks?
- Communists who believed that a revolution must take place to throw over the government, etc.
- Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks?
- Vladimir Lenin
- What were the three goals of the Bolsheviks?
- 1. Land
- Why did the Bolsheviks want land?
- Less than 5% of the people owned more than 95% of the land.
- Why didn't the Bolsheviks have food?
- All food was being shipped to the soldiers
- What was the peace treaty that Germany signed with Russia called?
- The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- What was Germany's benefit of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
- Only had to fight on one front
- What was the race at the very end of WWI?
- Germany moved its men from Eastern to Western Europe (Russia to France) While the US moved its men to Western Europe.
- In the Summer of 1918, Germans launched...
- ...their last offensive.
- What is an offensive?
- What was the last offensive launched by the Germans called?
- 2nd Battle of the Marne
- What's the Marne?
- River outside of Paris
- What happened at the 2nd Battle of the Marne?
- The Allies defeated Germany
- Who were the Allies led by in the 2nd Battle of the Marne?
- General Ferdinand Foch
- Why did the Allies win the 2nd Battle of the Marne?
- US troops had arrived just in time.
- When did WWI come to an end?
- November 11, 1918 at 11 am
- What day do we celebrate the ending of WWI?
- Veterans Day
- What was the next step after WWI was over?
- Peace Settlement
- What big decision needed to be made?
- "What are we going to do with Germany?"
- Who worked on the Peace Settlement? (group)
- The Big Three
- Who were the countries represented by the Big Three?
- Who did the Big Three comprise of?
- President Woodrow Wilson (USA)
Prime minister David Lloyd George (Great Britain)
Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau (France)
- What was the problem with the peace settlement?
- Each had different goals
- How many points did Wilson have in his plan for the Peace Settlement?
- What were 3 of the 14 points Wilson had in his plan for peace?
- 1. Self-Determination (each group of people should govern itself)
2. League of Nations (International peace-keeping organization)
3. No secret treaties (breeds suspicion and mistrust)
- What was David Lloyd George's plan for peace?
- What are reparations?
- Payments of restitution
- What was Georges Clemenceau's plan for peace (3)?
- 1. Reparations
2. Eliminate Germany's military
3. Buffer Zone
- Where did France want to create a buffer zone?
- Between France and Germany
- How would France create a buffer zone?
- Make a separate country between Germany and France?
- What would the country between Germany and France be called?
- Why was the country France wanted to create called Rhineland?
- Named after the Rhine River.
- What was the 1st Battle of the Marne associated with?
- The Schlieffen plan
- What are Mr. Nikolas's sons names?
- Alexander and Michael
- Why does evil exist in the world?
- Free Will
To develop moral character
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