Glossary of 2- The Chemical Level of Organization- Anatomy and Physiology

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What is Chemistry?
The science of the structure and interactions of matter.
What is organic chemistry?
the compunds important to life: carbon compounds
How many elements are in the periodic table of elements?
How many elements are naturally occuring on earth?
How many elements are normally present in the human body?
Which 4 elements make up 96% of the human body's mass?
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
What are atoms?
the smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of an element
The nucleus contains:
neutrons (no charge) and protons (postive charge)
The number of protons determines:
the atomic number
Around the nucleus is:
a cloud of electrons (negative charge)
The number of electrons = the number of:
protons, unless an outside source takes an electron or proton away.
electrons shells
where electrons orbit.
the first electron shell holds:
2 electrons
the 2nd electron shell holds up to:
8 electrons
the 3rd electron shell holds up to:
8 electrons
the 4th electron shell holds up to:
18 electrons
Atoms are happiest when:
their outer shell is full
an atom with a postive or negative charge because it has gained or lost electrons
process of giving up or gaining electrons
postive charged ion
negative charged ion
oxygen molecule with extra electron, linked to a variety of pathologies including cancer, artherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and cataracts.
valence shell
outer electron shell
inert gases
elements with full outer shells and do not interact with anything
ionic bond
very strong, solid at room temperature, dissolve when put in water, opposites attract
covalent bond
most common bond in the body, shared electrons, don't break apart in water
hydrogen bonds
bind 2 parts of a molecule, 5% as strong as a covalent bond, forms 3-D shape, opposites attract.
Partial positive
when the electrons spend their time away from the atom
partial negative
when the electrons stick around a certain atom in a molecule
What is the only small moelcule that is liquid at room temperature?
What kind of bond holds organic compounds together?
Covalent bonds
What are the 4 major types of organic compounds?
sugars (carbs), fatty acids (lipids), amino acids/proteins, nucleotides (DNA and RNA)
What are the 7 functions of a protein?
1. Coordinated movement
2. structure and mechanical strength
3. communication- receptors
4. immune protection- antibodies
5. control of growth and differentiation
6. transport and storage
7. enzymatic catalysis enzymes
Protein are built from:
amino acids
What is the basic structure for all amino acids?
Central carbon atom with 4 groups: amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (CO2OH), hydrogen atom (H), and a side chain
Amino acids are linked to each other by:
peptide bonds
link of many amino acids is called a:
peptide chain
What is the primary structure of a protein?
string of amino acids
what is the secondary structure of a protein?
helix shape
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
3-D structure
What is the quarternary structure of a protein?
long chains of 3D structures
Function of a protein is determined by:
the amino acid sequence
If you change the amino acid sequence:
you end up with a non-functional protein (ex. sickle cell anemia)
What is denatured?
When a protein encounters an altered environment, it could unravel and lose its characteristic shape (ex. temp too high)

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