Glossary of 2- The Chemical Level of Organization- Anatomy and Physiology
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- What is Chemistry?
- The science of the structure and interactions of matter.
- What is organic chemistry?
- the compunds important to life: carbon compounds
- How many elements are in the periodic table of elements?
- How many elements are naturally occuring on earth?
- How many elements are normally present in the human body?
- Which 4 elements make up 96% of the human body's mass?
- Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
- What are atoms?
- the smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of an element
- The nucleus contains:
- neutrons (no charge) and protons (postive charge)
- The number of protons determines:
- the atomic number
- Around the nucleus is:
- a cloud of electrons (negative charge)
- The number of electrons = the number of:
- protons, unless an outside source takes an electron or proton away.
- electrons shells
- where electrons orbit.
- the first electron shell holds:
- 2 electrons
- the 2nd electron shell holds up to:
- 8 electrons
- the 3rd electron shell holds up to:
- 8 electrons
- the 4th electron shell holds up to:
- 18 electrons
- Atoms are happiest when:
- their outer shell is full
- an atom with a postive or negative charge because it has gained or lost electrons
- process of giving up or gaining electrons
- postive charged ion
- negative charged ion
- oxygen molecule with extra electron, linked to a variety of pathologies including cancer, artherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and cataracts.
- valence shell
- outer electron shell
- inert gases
- elements with full outer shells and do not interact with anything
- ionic bond
- very strong, solid at room temperature, dissolve when put in water, opposites attract
- covalent bond
- most common bond in the body, shared electrons, don't break apart in water
- hydrogen bonds
- bind 2 parts of a molecule, 5% as strong as a covalent bond, forms 3-D shape, opposites attract.
- Partial positive
- when the electrons spend their time away from the atom
- partial negative
- when the electrons stick around a certain atom in a molecule
- What is the only small moelcule that is liquid at room temperature?
- What kind of bond holds organic compounds together?
- Covalent bonds
- What are the 4 major types of organic compounds?
- sugars (carbs), fatty acids (lipids), amino acids/proteins, nucleotides (DNA and RNA)
- What are the 7 functions of a protein?
- 1. Coordinated movement
2. structure and mechanical strength
3. communication- receptors
4. immune protection- antibodies
5. control of growth and differentiation
6. transport and storage
7. enzymatic catalysis enzymes
- Protein are built from:
- amino acids
- What is the basic structure for all amino acids?
- Central carbon atom with 4 groups: amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (CO2OH), hydrogen atom (H), and a side chain
- Amino acids are linked to each other by:
- peptide bonds
- link of many amino acids is called a:
- peptide chain
- What is the primary structure of a protein?
- string of amino acids
- what is the secondary structure of a protein?
- helix shape
- What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
- 3-D structure
- What is the quarternary structure of a protein?
- long chains of 3D structures
- Function of a protein is determined by:
- the amino acid sequence
- If you change the amino acid sequence:
- you end up with a non-functional protein (ex. sickle cell anemia)
- What is denatured?
- When a protein encounters an altered environment, it could unravel and lose its characteristic shape (ex. temp too high)
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