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Glossary of 1st AID USMLE Step 1 Pharmacology Pharmacodynamics

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(amount of drug)/(fluid compartment concentration)
Vd
protein bound drugs
liver and kidney disease
pharmacodynamic variable altered?
Vd
Vd eq
Vd = drug amount/drug concentration
Cl eq
Cl = elimination rate/[drug]
t1/2 eq
t1/2 = .7*Vd/Cl
10% remaining concentration
# half lives?
3.3
12.5% remaining concentration
# half lives?
3
25% remaining concentration
# half lives?
2
Loading dose eq
Loading dose = Cp*Vd/F
Maintenance dose eq
Maintanence Dose = Cp*CL/F

Cp= target [drug]
F = bioavailability
change in loading dose with renal/hepatic disease
Unchanged
change in maintanence dose with renal/hepatic disease
lower
zero order elimination
constant __ of drug eliminated per time
amount
first order elimination
constant __ of drug eliminated per time
fraction
zero order elimitation
Cp decreases linearly/exponentially?
linearly
first order elimination
Cp decreases linearly/exponentially?
exponentially
Phase I metabolism
resulting metabolite characteritics
slightly polar
water soluble
often still active
Phase I metabolism reactions
oxidation
reduction
hydrolysis
oxidation
reduction
hydrolysis

Phase?
Phase I
cytochrome P-450
phase?
Phase I
Phase II metabolism
resulting metabolite characteristics
very polar
inactive
*renally excreted
Phase II metabolism reactions
acetylation
glucuronidation
sulfanation
acetylation
glucuronidation
sulfanation

Phase?
Phase II
conjugation

Phase?
Phase II
Phase metabolism lost in geriatrics
Phase I
competitive antagonist effect on agonist dose curve
shift to right
**decreased potency
noncompetitive antagonist effect on agonist dose curve
shifts downward
**decreased efficacy
EC50 vs Kd in system w/ spare receptors
EC50 < Kd
partial agonist vs full agonist
less efficacy
phase 1 clinical trial questions
is it safe?
pharmacokinetics?
Phase 2 clinical trial questions?
does it work in patients?
Phase 3 clinical trial questions?
Does it work double blind?
Phase 4 clinical trial questions?
Postmarketing is it safe?

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