Glossary of 1st AID USMLE Step 1 Neurology and Psychiatry Basal Brain Structures

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thirst and water balance
which hypothalamic nucleus?
supraoptic nuc
which hypothalamic nucleus
lateral nucleus
result of destruction of lateral nucleus of hypothalamus
anorexia and starvation
which hypothalamuc nucleus?
ventromedial nuc
result of destruction of ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus
hyperphagia and obesity

lesion to ventromedial nucleus -> u grow VENTRALLY and MEDIALLY
two hypothalamic nuclei which regulate appetite
parasympathetic regulation
which part of hypothalamus
anterior hypothalamus
sympathetic regulation
which part of hypothalamus
posterior hypothalamus
circadian rythms governed by what nucleus of hypothalamus
which part of hypothalamus regulates heat conservation and production when cold
posterior hypothalamus

no posterior hypothalamus -> poikilotherm (cold blooded)
part of hypothalamus which coordinates cooling when hot
anterior hypothalamus
A/C = anterior cooling
sexual urges and emotions
which hypothalamus nucleus?
septal nucleus
what is the result of destruction of septal nucleus of hypothalamus
thalamus function
relay for ascending sensory information that ultimately reaches the cortex
inputs of posterior pituitary
supraoptic (ADH) and peraventricular (oxytocin) nuclei

oxytocin; oxys = quick; tocos = birth
hormone secreted (via neurohypophysis) of supraoptic nucleus
hormone secreted (via neurohypophysis) of paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus
sensory input to lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus
sensory input to medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus
sensory input to ventrap posterior nucleus, lateral part (VPL) of thalamus
body sensation
--proprioception, pressure, pain, touch, vibration via dorsal columns and spinothalamic tract
sensory input to ventral posterior nucleus, medial part (VPM)
facial sensation via CNV
function of ventral anterior/lateral nuclei of thalamus (VA/VL)
motor nuclei of thalamus
ventral anterior, ventral lateral
visual nucleus of thalamus
lateral geniculate nucleus

Lateral for light
auditory nucleus of thalamus
medial geniculate nucleus

Medial for Music
body sensation nucleus of thalamus
ventral posterior nucleus, lateral part

facial sensation nucleus of thalamus
ventral posterior nucleus, medial part

limbic system function
responsible for Feeding, Fighting, Feelings, Fright, and Sex

The Famous Five F's
Parkinsons disease due to decreased input from the ____
substantia nigra

*stims direct
*inhibs indirect
Which extrapyramidal motor pathway facilitates movement
Direct pathway
Which extrapyramidal poathway inhibits movenment
indirect pathway
The direct extrapyramidal motor pathway function
facilitates movement
The indirect extrapyramidal motor pathway function
inhibits movement
DIRECT extrapyramidal motor pathway effect on GPi
Outline the INDIRECT extrapyramidal motor pathway from substantia nigra pars compacta to motor cortex
*net inhibition of thalamus from uninhibited GPI

putamen, indirect pathway, inhibits
GPe inhibits
(STN which stims->) GPi inhibits
Thalamus stimulates
motor cortex

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