Glossary of 19th Century History Overview
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- Who are the major 19th century philosophers?
- What major events shaped the 19th century?
- 1. The Industrial Revolution
2. Reaction and Revolution: growth of
3. National unification and the state
4. Romanticism, Symbolism and Realism in the Western World
5. Development of a social conscience toward latter part of century
- What happened in September 1814?
- The 10-day Congress of Vienna was hosted by Austrian emperor Francis I and attended by all those who fought Napoleon.
- What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
- To sign a final treaty after a decade of war. The treaty was signed on June 8, 1815.
- What were the European monarchs trying to do?
- They were trying to re-establish the old European order where Kings, landed and bureaucratic elites regained their control over domestic matters.
- What were the main ideologies of the 19th century that prevented the old, conservative monarchic order?
- New ideologies of change: liberalism and nationalism (against conservatism) as a result of the French Revolution of 1789. Other revolutions followed in
the 1820's, 1830's culminating in the revolutions of 1848. Within 25 years, many of the goals sought by the liberals & nationalists were achieved:
national unity became real in Italy and Germany and many western states developed constitutional-parliamentary features.
- Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
- It began in Britain in the 1780's.
- Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain? What were its factors?
- The 18th century agricultural revolution led to an increase in food production.
It was possible to feed more people at lower prices creating a
surplus in family income leading in turn to excess money to buy luxury items and manufactured goods.
Prosperity led to rapid population growth on 2nd half of 18th c. --
In turn, this excess population provided a pool of surplus labor for the new factories.
- What natural resources fueled the industrial revolution?
- coal & steam replaces
wind & water.
Farming ceases to be long term employer.
Factories are in place, replacing shop and home workrooms.
- What was the impact of the industrial revolution?
- During the industrial revolution, Europe experienced a shift from traditional, agricultural labor intensive economy to a manufacturing capital intensive economy operating in industrial factories with specialized labor.
The IR changed Europeans, their society, their relationship to other peoples and the cosmos and world itself. The development of large factories encouraged mass movements of people from the countryside to urban areas, where impersonal coexistence replaced the intimacy of rural life.
It also led to a revolution in transportation allowing raw materials and finished products to be moved quickly around the world.
The creation of a wealthy industrial middle class and a huge industrial working class (the proletariat) transformed social relationships and how people related to nature producing an environmental crisis of which we see the consequences today.
- What were the other factors that led to the Industrial revolution to begin in Britain?
- 1. Ready supply of capital investment.
2. Profit from trade and cottage industry.
3. An effective central bank.
4. Well-developed flexible credit facilities.
5. British people were fascinated by wealth and commerce.
6. Small country with abundant rivers
7. Private investment poured into construction of new roads, bridges and canals.
8. By 1780 - roads, rivers, canals linked the major industrial centers of the North, the Midlands, London and the Atlantic Coast.
9. In 18th c. war and conquest, Britain had a vast colonial empire at the expense of its rivals: the Dutch and the French.
10. Well-developed merchant marine.
11. They were able to produce cheap articles that were in demand abroad.
Best markets were not protected European markets but the Americas, Africa and the Far East.
12. Britain had the highest standard of living in Europe and a rapidly growing population.
- What revolutionalized the production of cotton?
- James Watt steam engine
(Steam is an Englishman by 1950)
The steam engine increased the demand for coal.
The cheapest labor in india couldn't compete in quantity or quality with British workers.
- What other industry was revolutionized during the Industrial revolution?
- The iron ore industry. Vast amounts of it but smelted in a medieval way depending on charchoal. New methods of producing iron ore to produce cast iron.
- What effects did the production of fine wrought-iron have?
- Production of machineries, steamboats and railroads.
Demand of railroads for coal + iron transportation.
In 1840's, 2000 miles of railroads.
By 1850's, 6000 miles of railroads.
Railroad line from liverpool to Manchester opened in 1830 carrying passengers.
- What was the impact of the Industrial factory?
- Organized, specialized labor.
Long hours of regular work to keep up production and profits (vs. irregular hours --)
Punching machines, clocks
Efficiency, machinization of man
Repetitive, boring work
Factory regulations and fines for infractions
Children were beaten
This became a natural way of live for 2nd-3rd generation workers
BY MID 19TH C. Great Britain had become the world's first and richest industrial nation. It was the workshop, banker and trader of the world.
Produced 1/2 of the world's coal and manufactured goods.
Its cotton industry was larger than all of other European countries combined
- What countries did the Industrial Revolution spread to?
- First to be industrialized were Belgium, France and the German States .
Then, the United States.
Only after 1850 did the Industrial Revolution spread to the rest of Europe and other parts of the World.
- What were the major obstacles to industrialization?
- Lack of technical knowledge. (first borrowed British techniques)
Gradually, it reached technological independence and it spread to other countries by the 1840's.
France and Germany beegany to open technical schools to train engineers and mechanics.
- When did the US experience the Industrial Revolution and urbanization?
- During the first half of the 19th c.
In the 1800, society in the US was agrarian, no cities with a population over 100,000.
By 1860, population had grown from 5 to 30 million people (larger than that of G. Britain)
34 instead of 16 states
1/2 lived west of Appalachian Mountains
- What was an economic set back for US initially?
- It large geographic size impeded a good system of internal transportation.
It limited American economic development because transportation of goods was very expensive.
Thousands of miles of roads and canals were built.
The steam boat faciliated transportation on the Great Lakes, Atlantic waters and rivers.
Railroad: 100 miles in 1830 - 1860 over 27000 miles.
- When did Russia experience the Industrial Revolution?
- Industrialization in eastern europe lagged far behind that of Western and central Europe.
Russia, remained rural and agricultural: autocratic regime that kept peasants in serfdom.
Not much a middle class.
Tsarist regime, fearful of change, preferred to import industrial goods in return for the export of raw materials such as grain and timber.
Russian would not have an industrial revolution until the end of the 19th c.
- What happened in the colonial dominions?
- It was Britain's best interest to prevent the growth of mechanized industry in the colonies.
India was one of the greatest exporters of cotton by hand labor.
In the first half of the 19th century, much of India was under the control of the British East India Company.
With British control, came inexpensive British factory-produced textiels, soon, thousands of indian spinners and hand loom weavers were unemployed.
- What was the social impact of Industrialization? (1)
- population growth
Drop in deaths from famines, epidemics and wars.
Cities changed: became places for manufacturing and industry (no longer princely courts, government and military offices, churces and commerce)
Dramatic growth of cities, double+ in population (London in the 1800 had 1 million and by 1850's had 2.3 million) produced miserable living conditions for many of the inhabitants.
Wealthy, middle class: suburbs (houses+gardens)
Small row housing: artisans and lower middle class in the inner ring of city.
City center: the industrial workers.
Sanitary conditons apalling, sewers and open drains were common, stagnation, putrefaction.
Unable to deal with human excrement, cities smelt terrible. They were death traps.
Death outnumbered births in cities. Only influx kept them growing.
Metropolitan areas in poverty and squalor.
Sinking into crime, immorality, disease - a potential threat to the social order.
Chadwick advocated modern sanitary reform: efficient sewers and supply of piped water.
Also, outbreaks of cholera ravaged Europe in the early 1830's and 1840's.
- What was one of the greatest catastrophes of the 19th century?
- In Irelalnd, famine produced the century's greatest catastrophe. Irish peasants lived in mud hovels in desperate poverty. Potato, easy to grow, ensured population growth. In 60 years, population doubled from 4 to 8 million.
In the summer of 1845, the potato crop in Ireland was struck by blight turning potatoes black.
Between 1845-1851, the potato famine decimated the Irish population.
1 million died of starvation and disease.
2 million emigrated to USA + Britain.
Of all European nations, only Ireland had a declining population.
- What was the social impact of industrialization? (2)
- New social classes:
a. the industrial middle class.
b. the industrial working class.
Efforts at change: early socialism.
- What was the predominant literary movement of the 19th century? Which earlier movement influenced it?
- Romanticism which had its origins in the German movement called Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) whose main proponents were Herder and Goethe. Sturm and Drang was a reaction against the Enlightenment or Age of Reason. It was characterized by strain, protest, revolt and it became egotistic and Dionysian.
- Who was Gottfriend von Herder?
- He grasped, as no thinker before, the idea of historical evolution and engendered the main current of Sturm und Drang.
Also, began doctrine of Humanitat (intellect+feeling to be harmoniously balanced) which was fundamental to German Neoclassicism.
Stressed the value of historical continuity (folk songs, ballads and romances of Middle Ages as sources of inspirations).
- Is it correct to think that Romanticism began with English literature (Wordsworth, etc.)
- No! Wordsworth and Coleridge and publication of lyrical ballands in 1798 had nothing to do with this.
- What events or social factors affected the Romantic poets?
- The French Revolution of 1789
and the Industrial Revolution which began in Britain in 1780...
- What philosophers influenced Romanticism?
- Jean Jacques Rosseau emphasis on the individual and the power of inspiration influenced Wordsworth and 1st phase Romantic writers such as Holderlin, Tieck and Saint-Pierre of France.
Philosophy of Swedenborg who also believed in intuition and emphasizing the individual and self-knowledge.
- What major developments characterized history from 1800 to 1945?
- • Growth of industrialization, Industrial Revolution
• Western domination of the world
• Both are interconnected: the IR in 19th century led to the WD
- How did the IR lead to Western domination?
- • It created the technological means, including weapons by which western civilization would dominate the rest of the world.
- As late as 1870
- • Though they had began exploring the new world in 15th c. they had not yet completely penetrated North America, SA and Australia.
• In Asia + Africa western presence was limited to trading posts.
- What happened between 1870 to 1914?
- • Western civilization expanded into the rest of Americas + Australia
• Bulk of Africa and Asia was divided into European colonies
- What explains expansionism or western onslaught?
- • Migration of many Europeans to other parts of the world due to population growth
• Revival of a new imperialism due to West’s technological advancement leading Europeans to carve up Asia and Africa.
• Latin America AND E. ASIA (china+japan maintained national independence) WERE A MAJOR EXCEPTION. LA resisted and achieved political independence from its colonial rulers.
• However, LA still penetrated by Western merchants.
- When did the scramble begin for overseas territory?
- • In the 1880’s.
- What is nationalism?
- • Emphasizes the right of people to have their own nations.
• Independence movements against foreign oppression.
• Nationalism became very powerful in 20th c. as nationalist revolutions spread through Asia, Africa and ME.
- Two World Wars
- • The 2 world wars had destroyed the power of the European states.
• The colonial powers no longer had the energy or wealth to maintain their colonial empires after WW II.
- Describe the Industrial Middle class
- The bourgeois or middle class was not new.
Exists since Middle Ages, emergence of cities.
Bourgeois was a burgher or town dweller.
Active merchansts, officials, artisan, lawyer, man of letters.
Then then began buying land and term changed to include people involved in commerce, industry, banking, professionals and government officials.
Lower end: master craftsmen and shopkeepers.
- Who were these entrepeneurs?
- Tooks risks. Bought the equipment, figured out the markets, were resourceful, single minded, resolute, lots of initiative, vision, ambition and greed. Today we have many managers, but not then.
Great opportunity for making $ but also risks very high.
- What happened in 1850 to these entrepeneurs?
- Replaced by a new business aristocracy.
Professional+industrial middle classes
Inherited successful businesses
Bankers, owners of factories and mines
Amassed much wealth... play an important role along the landed elites.
They bought estates, gained social respect and also sought political power. In 19th c. the wealthiest members merged or married with those of the Old Elite.
- WHO DOMINATED THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL AGRARIAN WORLD?
- The landed elites.
- Who were the industrial working class?
- Factory workers formed the industrial proletariat. (1st half of c. they weren't a majority of the working class, still agricultural laborers and 1 million domestic servants). Only 811,000 as of 1851 in Britain, woolen and cotton workers, 1/3 of them, still worked out of home.
- What were the working conditions for the industrial working class?
- Wretched. Places of work were dreadful. 12-16 hour work days, 6 days a week.
No minimum wage. No employment security.
Worst: cotton mills. Temperatures debilitating - 80 to 84 degrees, 14 hours a day, locked up!
Mills were dirty, dusty, unhealthy.
Men rendered old at 40, children rendered decrepit and deformed, 1000's slaughtered by consumption before 16.
They dug the coal out (men)
Women, children, horses and mules hauled coal arts on rails to the lift.
Cave-ins, explosions, gas fumed.
Low height tunnels.
Constant dampness: deformed bodies and ruined lungs.
- What type of labor did children do?
- Worked for coal mines and cotton mills. They worked in the ifelds.
Carded and apinning of wool at home.
They added a delicate touch, they were small, can get underneath machines to gather loose cotton.
Easily broken to factory work.
A cheap supply of labor.
1821 - 49% of British were under 20, abundant supply of labor, paid only 1/6 or 1/3 of a man's wages.
7 year ols worked 12-15 hours per day 6 days a week in cotton mills.
- By 1830
- women and children made 2/3 of the cotton industry's labor. Before 1870, women made up to 50% of the textile factories.
- When did the Factory Act come in place and what was its major impact?
9 minimum working age.
1844 excessive working hours for women were outlawed (only in mines and textile factories).
In 1867 outlawed in craft workshops.
It reduced working hours for children and women and broke up the traditiona kinship pattern of work and led to a new pattern based on a separation of work and home. (men respon. for primary obligations, while women assumed family work and low paying jobs such as laundry work).
- Female Work
- 1851 - 40% of women in Britain were domestic servants.
In France, 40% of women worked in agriculture.
20% in Britain were in factories.
10% in France were in factories.
Mostly single women.
- What gave rise to early socialism?
- The pitiful and dreadful conditions found in slums, mines and factories. Intellectuals believed in the equality of all people
want to replace compeittion with cooperation in industry.
Theorists such as Marx were labeled as utopian socialists.
- What did Robert Owen think?
- He thought that humans would show their natural true goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.
In Scotland, he transformed a squalid factory town into a flourishing community.
Such cooperative community was impossible in the US, Indiana, fighting within.
- What did the utopian socialists do?
- They attracted women socialists to reorder society. Frances Wright, a wealthy woman, bought slaves to set a model community at Nashoba. It failed.
- What was the goal of the great powers after the defeat of Napoleon?
- Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia met at the congress of Vienna in 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement.
The Austrian leader, Prince Klemens von Metternich proposed the 'principle of legitimacy.'
To keep peace and stability in Euripe, it was NECESSARY TO RESTORE the legitimate MONARCHS who would preserve TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS.
FRANCE HAD ALREADY RESTORED THE BOURBON MONARCHY.
- What was the purpose of the peace arrangements of 1815?
- They were the beginning of how the conservatives reacted against the liberal and nationalistic forces unleashed by the French Revolution.
- What ideology did Metternich represent?
Obedience to political authority.
Organized religion crucial to social order.
Hated revolutionary upheavals.
Unwilling to accept liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments.
Refused the nationalistic aspirations generated by the French Revolution.
Community takes presedence over individual rights.
Society must be organized and ordered.
Respect for tradition.
After 1815, the political philosophy for conservatism was supported by hereditary monarchs, government bureaucracies, land owning aristocracies and revived churches, Protestant or Catholic.
- What was the concert of Europe?
The conservative domination of europe evident in the conert of Europe b. 1815-1830.
- Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and austria (and later France) agreed to meet periodicaly to discuss common interests and examine laws and measures that will be benefitial for the prosperity of peoples and for peace in Europe.
- What was the principle of intervention?
- It was the principle adopted by the Great powers to have the right to use force to restore legitimate monarchs who had been toppled from their thrones by revolutions.
Britain refused to agree to the principle arguing that it had never been the intention of the great powers to interfere in the internal affairs of other states.
Ignoring British position, Austria, Prussia, Rssia and Franced used military intervention to defeat revolutionary movements in Spain and Italy and to restore legitimate and conservative monarchs to their thrones.
- What were the powerful movements for change against the old order?
- Nationalism and Liberalism that flourished in the first half of the 19th century.
- What is liberalism?
- It owed much to:
the enlightenment of 18th century
Liberalism became increasingly important as the Industrial Revolution progressed because the developing industrial middle class adopted it as its own.
The bourgeois were convinced that people should have as much freedom as possible, with very little restraint. This is evident in economic and political liberalism.
- What is economic liberalism?
- Also called classical economics, economic liberalism was based on the primary tenet of laissez-faire or:
that the state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand.
Government shouldn't interfere with the economic liberty of the individual and should restrict itself to only three primary functions:
defense of the country
police protection of individuals
construction and maintenance of public works
If individuals were allowed economic liberty, ultimately they would bring about the maximum good for the maximum number and benefit the general welfare of society.
- What was the liberals common set of beliefs?
- Protection of civil liberties or basic rights of all people.
a. equality before the law
b. freedom of assembly, speech and press.
c. freedom from arbitrary arrest.
All these freedoms to be guaranteed by a written document such as:
the American Bill of Rights
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
Religious toleration of all.
Separation of Church and State.
Right of peaceful opposition to the government in and out of parliament.
Making of laws by a representative assembly (legislature) elected by qualified voters.
Many liberals then believed in a constitutional monarchy or state which limits the powers of government to prevent despotism.
- What other liberal suggestions were made?
- They also advocated:
Ministerial responsibility (the king's minister were accountable to the legislature rather than to the king). In this way, the legislature can check on the power of the executive.
In the 1st half of century, also believed in:
While all were entitled to equal civil rights, not all entitled to political rights.
Right to vote open to men who met certain property qualifications.
- As a political philosophy, to what social class was liberalism tied to?
- It was tied to industrial middle-class, men who favored the extension of voting rights so they could share power with the landed classes.
No interest to let the lower classes share in the power.
Liberals were not DEMOCRATS.
- What other ideology for change co-existed with liberalism in the 19th c and was more powerful?
- How did nationalism arise?
- It arose out of an awareness that humans are part of a community that has:
common institutions, traditions, language and customs (a nation).
As such, the primary political loyalty of individduals is to the nation rather than to a dynasty, city-state or other political unit.
- When did Nationalism become a popular force for change?
- In the French Revolution. From them on, nationalists believed that each nationality should have its own government.
Thus, a divided people such as the Germans wanted national unity in a German nation-state with one central government.
Hungarians, wanted national self-determination or the right to establish their own autonomy rather than be subject to a German minority in a multinational empire.
- Why was Nationalism a threat?
- It threated the existing political order, internationally and nationally.
Nationalism was radical.
A united Germany or Italy would upset the balance of power established in 1815.
An independent Hungarian state, would mean the breakup of the Austrian empire.
Because many Europena states were multinational, many conservatives tried to repress the radical threat of nationalism.
- How was nationalism and Liberalism allied?
- Most liberals believed that freedom could only be realized by people who ruled themselves.
Each people should have its own country.
No state should dominate others.
Alliance with liberalism gave nationalism a cosmopolitan dimension.
Once each people had its sate, all nations could be linked into a broader community of all humanity.
- When did the forces of change begin to sweep Europe?
- In 1830.
- Revolutionary liberal and nationalistic outbursts beginning in 1930?
- France - ultraroyalist Bourbon attempt (Charles X) to restore OM led to a revolt by the liberals.
Overthrow of Charles: constitutional monarchy established under Louis-Phillipe (1830-1848) the bourgeois monarch.
The Belgians, annexed to Dutch republic to create a larger state as a barrier to french aggression, rebelled agains the Dutch and established an independent constitutional monarchy.
Revolutionary scenarios in Poland and Italy were less successful.
Russian forces crushed the Poles' attempt to liberate themselves from foreign domination, while Austrian troops itervened in Italy.
- How did the revolutions in 1848 began?
- Revolution in France sparked other revolutions in southern Europe.
Tsar Nicholas I of Russia laments to QV: what remains standing in Europe: Great B and Russia?
- Why was the monarchy of Louis-Phillipe overthrown in France in February of 1848?
- Severe industrial and agricultural depression of 1846 which brought untild hardship to lower middle class, workers and peasants. Scandals, grafts, corruption were rife. Refusal to extend suffrage to middle class.
Opposition grew and monarchy was overthrown.
A provisional government established that called for universal elections (male suffrage) of a Constituent Assembly that would draw up a new constitution which was ratified on Nov. 4 1848 establishing a 2nd republic with a single legislature elected by universal male suffrage for 3 years and a president, also by usf. for 4 years.
In elections of Dec. 1848, Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon, won. Within 4 years, he would become Emperor Napoleon.
- What was the impact of the February French revolution?
- It led to many upheavals in central Europe.
- What had the Vienna Settlement of 1815 recognized?
- THE EXIstence of 38 sovereign states (the Germanic Confederation) in what had been the Holy Roman Empire.
Austria + Prussia were the 2 great powers, while other states varied in size.
- What did the German rulers promise after many cries for change?
- Constitutions, a free press, jury trials and other liberal reforms.
- What did the Prussian King Frederick William IV agree to?
- Abolish censorship
Establish a new constitution
Work for a united Germany.
(This last promise was carried out by all German states as governments allowed for elections by universal male suffrage for deputies to an all-german parliament. Purpose was to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream: a constitution for a new united Germany.
- What was the Frankfurt assembly called?
- The all german parliament. It failed as they couldn't force the German rules to accept the constitution they had drawn up.
German liberals failed at their attempt for a unified Germany, leadership and unification passed to the Prussian military monarchy.
- How was the structure of Latin America shaken by nationalism?
- It was challenged by the ideas of Enlightenment.
By upheavals of Napoleonic Wars and the new political ideals stemming from the successful revolution in North America were influencing the creole elites (descendents of Europeans who became permanent inhabitants of Latin America).
- What event destroyed the Concert of Europe and what was its impact?
- The Crimean War broke up the long standing power relationships and effectively destroyed the concert of Europe. Austria and Russia, allies at the beginning of century, are now enemies because Austria chose not to support Russia in the war.
Its impact was the unification or establishment of national states in Italy and Germany.
Their respective unifications shifted the power structure on the Continent.
Well into the 20th century, Europe + world still deals with consequences. (FASCISM - NAZISM)
- What has the cause and outcome of the Crimean War?
- In 1853, war broke between Russians and Turks. Russia demanded the right to protect Xtian shrines in Palestine, a privilege extended to the French.
When the Turks refused (why?) the Russians invaded:
Turkish Moldavia and Walachia.
Failure in negotiations, led the Turks to declare war on Russia on Oct. 1853.
Great Britain+France afraid that Russians will gain at the expense of the disintegrating Ottoman Empire, declared war on Russia and attached Russia's Crimean peninsula in the black sea.
Long siege and a terrible cost in troops on both sides, the main russian fortress of Sevastopol fell in 1855, Russians sued for pieace.
By Treaty of Paris, 1856, Russia was forced to give up Bessarabia at the mouth of the Danube and accept neutrality of Black Sea.
250,000 soldiers died, 60% from cholera.
Florence Nightingale strict sanitary conditions.
Russia was defeated, humiliated and weakened and withdrew from European affairs for 2 decades.
GB also pulled out from continental afffairs.
Austria, paid its price for its neutrality, no friends among the great powers.
- What happened in the revolutions of 1848?
- They failed, but within 25 years, many goals sought by liberals and nationalists had been achieved.
Italy + Germany became nations
Many European states were led by constitutional monarchs
Latin America achieved its independence
- The Unification of Italy
- By 1850, Austria was still the dominant power on Italian Peninsula.
After failure of 48-49 revolutions, Italians thought that Piedmont Kingdom including Sardinia (ruled by House of Savoy) was their best hope to achieve unification.
Doubtful whether the little state could be the leader of a unified state until King Victor Emmnauel II was his prime minister in 1852. Or Cavour, a consumate politician.
He pursues economic expansion
Increases government revenues
Pours money into a large army
He knew however that he couldn't challenge Austria alone.
Makes alliance with French Emperor Louis Napoleon
Provokes Austrians into invading Piedmont in 1859.
The austrians are defeated in 2 battles by French armies.
A peace settlement gave the Fench Nice and Savoy (promised for making the alliance)
Lombardy + Piedmontese to Cavour.
His success caused nationalists in Parma, Modena and Tuscany to overthrow their governments and join their states to Piedmont.
- The southern unification of Italy
- Garibaldi, a patriot, raised an army of a thousand Red Shirts.
he lands in Sicily where a revolt had broken out against the Bourbon king of the Two Sicilies. By the end of July 1860, Garibadi pacified Sicily.
In august, they move towards the mainland and begin a victorious march up the Italian Peninsula.
Naples + 2 Sicilies fall in early September.
Garibaldi tunrs over his conquests to Cavour's Piedmontese forces.
In 1861, a new kingdom of Italy is proclaimed under a centralized government subordinated to the control of Piedmont and King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy. Worn out, he died 3 months later.
- When was the kingdom of Italy proclaimed?
- In 1861. However, the task of unification waas not complete as Venetia was still held by Austria and Rome under papl control supported by French troops.
To attack either one, meant war with a major European state, not prepared to handle.
- Who completed the task of Italian unification?
- The Prussian Army. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 the new Italian State became an ally of Prussia.
The Austrians defeated the Italians, Prussia's victory allowed the Italians to annex Venetia. In 1870, the Franco-Prussian War resulted in the withdrawal of French troops from Rome.
Italian army annexed the city in Sept. 1870.
Rome becomes the capital of a united Italian State.
- At first, German nationalists focused in which 2 countries to unify German?
- Austria and Prussia.
- What is Prussia?
- The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, a Baltic people related to the Lithuanians and Latvians;was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. The last capital of Prussia was Berlin
- Who are the Balts?
- The Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti; Lithuanian: baltai; Latgalian: bolti), defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Daugava and Dnieper rivers on the southeast shore of the Baltic Sea.
Because the thousands of lakes and swamps in this area contributed to the Balts' geographical isolation, the Baltic languages retain a number of conservative or archaic features. Among the Baltic peoples are modern Lithuanians, Latvians and Latgalians -- all Eastern Balts -- as well as the Prussians, Yotvingians and Galindians, whose languages and cultures became extinct in the Middle Ages.
- What was the greatest importance of Prussia in the 18th and 19th c?
- During the 18th century, it became a great European power under the reign of Frederick II of Prussia (1740–86). During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany" which excluded the Austrian Empire.
- Why didn't Austria back German unification?
- They feared the creation of a strong German State in central Europe. More Germans began to look to Prussia for leadership.
- What did King William I propose?
- He wanted to enlarge and strengthen the Prussian army. However, prussian legislature refused to levy new taxes for military, William I appointed a new Prime Minister: COUNT OTTO VON BISMARK (1815-1898).
- What did Otto Von Bismark do?
- As Chancellor or PM, he ignored the opposing legislature against military reforms saying that Germany does not look to Prussia's liberalism but to her power... Not by speeches and majorities will the great questions of the day be decided, but by iron and blood... He collected taxes and reorganized army.
He governed Prussia from 1862-1866 by ignoring Parliament.
- What led to the unification of Germany?
- Opposition to his domestic policy forced him to engage in active foreign policy which led to war and German unification. 612.
- What traits did Bismarck have to unify Germany?
- He was a consummate politician and opportunist. Not a political gambler, but a moderate who waged war only when all diplomatic alternatives failed and only when he was sure that all diplomatic and military advantages were on his side.
He is the ultimate realist or 19th c. practitioner of 'realpolitik' 'the politics of reality.
He disliked opponents.
- What wars did Bismarck launch?
- Against Denmark, fought over duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
Bismark persuaded Austrians to join Prussia in declaring war on Denmark on Feb. 1864.
Danes quickly defeated, surrendered Schleswig and Holstein.
Austria and Prussia divide the administration of two duchies.
But Bismarck used the joint administration to create friction with Austrians and goad them into a war in June 1866.
2. Europeans expected austrian victory. They overlooked the military reforms of Prussia of 1860.
The Prussian breech-loading needle gun had a faster firing rate than the Austrian muzzle loader + a superior network of railroads...
At Sadowa, in July, the army was defeated.
Austria was excluded from German affairs and German states north of the Main River were organized into a North German Confederation controlled by Prussia.
- What did Bismarck and William I achieve by 1866?
- Prussia dominated all of northern Germany and Austria was excluded from any role in German affairs.
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