Glossary of 19th Century American History part 1
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- Who was George Washington?
- First President under the Constitution
- What was in place before the Constitution?
- Articles of Confederation
- What replaced the Articles of Confederation?
- The Constitution
- Who was the first President under the Articles of Confederation?
- John Hanson
- What were Washington's 3 basic goals?
- 1. Keep the US unified
3. Make sure the new government didn't fail
- What were the first two "political parties"?
- 1. Federalists
- What did the first Federalists want?
- wanted a strong national government, weaker states
- What did the Anti-Federalists want?
- Wanted states to have more power than the national government
- What was first opportunity for Neutrality?
- French Revolution
- Who was fighting in the French Revolution?
- Great Britian and France
- Washington knew he would set __________
- What are precedents?
- Rules for others to follow
- What was a main precedent that Washington set?
- Two terms is enough
- What law did Washington pass that set up courts?
- Judiciary Act of 1789
- What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do?
- 1. Set up the Supreme Court of the United States
2. Set up other Federal Courts
- How many justices were originally on the Supreme Court?
- How many separate district courts were set up? How many court of appeals?
- 13 district courts, 3 court of appeals
- What was the first law Congress passed about slaves?
- Fugitive Slave Act
- What did the Fugitive Slave Act allow?
- 1. Slave hunters could capture escaped slaves in any state, even if it was a "free state"
2. Escaped slave wasn't entitled to trial by a jury, only by a judge
3. There was a $500 fine to help hide an escaped slave
- What did the government want to set up to handle money?
- National Bank
- What 2 parties emerged during the time of the National Bank?
- 1. Federalists
- Who was the leader of the Federalists?
- Alexander Hamilton
- What was Hamilton's position in the government?
- Secratary of the Treasurer
- What identified the Federalists?
- 1. Strong national government
2. From the North
3. Business people
4. Loose constructionists
- What do "loose constructionists" support?
- The "Elastic Cause" or "Necessary and proper clause"
- Where is the Elastic Clause found?
- Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution
- What does the Elastic Clause say?
- Congress may pass laws that are necessary and proper to carry out powers enumerated in the constitution
- What does "enumerated" mean?
- Who was the leader of the Democratic-Republicans?
- Thomas Jefferson
- What was Jefferson's place in government?
- Secratary of State
- What identified the Democratic-Republicans?
- 1. Strong state government
2. From the south
3. Agricultural workers/farmers
4. Strict constructionists
- What are strict constructionists?
- Ones who don't like the elastic clause
- What was the debate about the National Bank?
- Nowhere in the Constitution did it say the Federal government had the right to create it
- What were the 4 major functions of the National bank?
- 1. Federal government would have a place to keep money
2. Could provide loans for businesses
3. Could sell bonds
4. Aid in collecting taxes
- Why did the Democratic-Republicans hate the elastic clause?>
- Every time it was used, the states lost power
- What does the 10th amendment state?
- Any power not given to the federal government, nor denied of the states, is given to the states
- What amendment says that states can have power that is not given to the fed. government and not denied to the states?
- 10th Amendment
- What is an excise tax?
- A tax on a specific product
- What rebellion was the result of an excise tax?
- The Whiskey Rebellion
- WHat did people to do tax collectors?
- Attacked them, beat them, tarred and feathered them
- What rebellion took place previously that scared the people?
- Shays' Rebellion
- Where did Shays' rebellion take place?
- Who lead Shays' Rebellion?
- Daniel Shays
- What did Shays do to rebel?
- Attacked courthouses
- Who led an army of 15,000 men to stop the Whiskey Rebellion?
- George Washington and Alexander Hamilton
- What happened when Washington lead the army to PA?
- Farmers hid, rebellion ended
- Where did the Whiskey Rebellion take place?
- What was the result of the Whiskey Rebellion ending?
- Gave confidence that the government could protect its citizens
- What were America's 4 basic problems with Great Britian?
- 1. GB was angry over losing the colonies
2. GB was seizing American ships
3. GB was impressing American sailors (impressment)
4. GB still had soldiers posted at over 1/2 dozen forts on American Territory
- Who did Washington send to GB to come up with a treaty?
- John Jay
- Who was John Jay?
- Justice of the Supreme Court
- What did John Jay agree to?
- Jay's Treaty
- What did Jay's Treaty state?
- 1. GB would pull its soldiers out of Americna Territory
2. GB would pay for stolen ships and stop stealing and seizing the ships
- What was the major exclusion in Jay's Treaty?
- Impressment of the soldiers
- What was the name of the treaty between US and Spain?
- Pinckney's Treaty OR Treaty of San Lorenzo
- Who negotiated a treaty with Spain?
- Thomas Pinckney
- Why was Spain so willing to accept a treaty?
- Spain and GB were enemies, US had treaty with GB
- What did Pinckney's treaty say?
- 1. Allowed US to use the Mississippi river
2. Allowed farmers to store goods at New Orleans without paying a tax
3. Agreed on the boundaries between US and Spain
- What was the advantage to the US using the Miss river?
- Huge boom to the economy
- What were the boundaries set between America and Spain?
- Ended ont he northern border of Florida and went west ot the Miss. River
- What was the geographical name of the boundary between US and Spain?
- 31st Parallel
- What was the name of Washington's letter to the American people at the end of his two terms?
- Washington's Farewell Address
- What were the 2 warnings Washington gave in his Farewell Address?
- 1. Involvement in international entanglement
2. Americans must unite (no parties)
- What is the word that describes saying out of other countries' affairs?
- What was one of America's foreign policies for years?
- Why didn't Washington want political parties?
- The parties only cared about themselves, not the country
- What 2 parties were starting to form during Washington's time?
- 1. Federalists
- Who ran in the election of 1796?
- 1. John Adams
2. Thomas Jefferson
- What was Adam's role before the Election of 1796?
- Vice president under Washington
- What party was Adams a part of?
- What party was Thomas Jefferson under?
- Who won the election of 1796?
- John Adams
- What sort of troubles were there between US and France during Adams' time?
- French were capturing American ships, steeling them and the goods, and imprisoning the soldiers
- What was the name of the French government?
- The Directory
- Who was sent to negotiate with the French under Adams?
- Charles Pinckney
- What was The Directory's immediate response to Pinckney?
- They refused to meet with him
- What were Adams' two choices regarding French?
- 1. Go to war
2. Continue to try to negotiate
- What did Adams do after The Directory wouldn't meet with Pinckney?
- Sent three people, including Pinckney
- What is the name of what happened with the 3 people Adams sent to France?
- XYZ affair
- Who met the people Adams sent to france?
- 3 French officials
- What did the 3 French officials demind?
- 1. They men had to pay the 3 frenchmen a bribe
2. The government would give a huge loan to The Directory
- What did Adams do after the French insulted America?
- Addressed congrerss, and said that the only recourse would be war
- Who didn't believe Adams' report about the French?
- What did Adams do to get the Democratic-Republicans to believe him?
- Made the report public
- Why is the XYZ affair so named?
- In the public report, the 3 french officials were named X, Y, and Z.
- What was the name of the 2-year non-declared war?
- Quasi War
- What was the relation between GB and France?
- they were enemies
- How would the British help America in the Quasi war?
- 1. Help to train our officers
2. Weapons at sea
3. Active communication with our ships at sea
- What did Bonaparte tell Adams?
- France would stop attacking if America would stop attacking
- What acts heightened tension between the US and France?
- Alien and Sedition Acts
- What was the reason the Federalists gave for the Alien and Sedition acts?
- To protect America from the French
- What were the 4 Alien and Sedition Acts?
- 1. Naturalization Act
2. Alien Enemies Act
3. Alien Friends Act
4. Sedition Act
- What was the Naturalization Act?
- In order to be a US citizen, you had to live here at least 14 years (previously 5 years)
- Who was not allowed to vote in the US?
- people who were not citizens
- What was the Alien Enemies Act?
- The President may deport any alien from an enemy country if that alien is deemed to threaten National Security
- What was the Alien Friends Act?
- The President may deport any alien from a friendly country, if that nation is deemed to threaten National Security
- What was the Sedition Act?
- It was a crime to criticize the government (speak or write anything flase or malicious)
- Why did the Democratic-Republicans think the Alien and Seditions Acts were passed?
- The Federalists just wanted to sustain their party
- Why would the A&S Acts help the Federalist party?
- 1. Most new citizens were joining the Democratic-Republicans
2. If you can't criticize the government, nobody hears anything negative and everyone thinks it's okay
- What were the States responses to the A&S Acts?
- They passed resolutions
- What did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions say?
- States created the Federal Government, the Federal government was given certain powers by the constitution... and States can nullify federal laws.
- Who were the Authors of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
- Thomas Jefferson
- Who ran in the election of 1800 and in what parties?
- John Adams: Federalist
Thomas Jefferson: Democratic-Republican
- Who won the election of 1800 and why?
- Jefferson won because people were upset at the Federalists for the A&S Acts
- Who won 2nd place in the election of 1800 and what place did they take?
- Aaron Burr, vice president
- What debate went to the Supreme court immediately after Jefferson took office?
- Marbury v. Madison
- What did Adams do just before leaving office?
- Made dozens of appointments that were confirmed by Senate
- What were the appointments made by Adams known as?
- Midnight Appointments
- What does the president sign granting appointment?
- What happened to 4 of the commissions signed by Adams?
- They were not delivered before he left office
- Who was in charge of delivering the President's commissions?
- the Secratary of State
- What did Jeffereson tell his secratary of state to do with Adams' commsissions>
- Not to deliver them
- Who was Jefferson's secretary of state?
- James Madison
- Who was upset because his commission was not delivered?
- William Marbury
- Who was the chief justice of the Supreme Court during the time of Marbury v. Madison?
- John Marshall
- Why was John Marshall "between a rock and a hard place" because of Marbury v. Madison?
- 1. IF the supreme court orders Madison do deliver the commission, he wouldn't do it and it would make the court look weak
2. If the S.C. didn't order Madison to deliver it, it makes them look as though they're afraid to order him
- What was Marshall's solution to Marbury v. Madison?
- Writ of Mandamus
- What Act is the Writ of Mandamus based in?
- Judiciary Act of 1789
- What does the Judiciary Act of 1789 say?
- Federal courts have the power to issue a Writ of Mandamus
- What is a writ of mandamus?
- Court order wherin the court orders a government official to act
- What did Marshall do with the Writ of mandamus?
- Siad that seciont 13 of teh Judiciary Act (writ of mandamus) was unconstitutional
- Why could Marshall deem the writ of mandamus unconstitional?
- Judicial review
- What is Judicial review?
- power of the courts to deem whether or not laws are constitutional
- Where was the Barbary war?
- Barbary Coast in North Africa
- What were the 4 Barbary countries?
- 1. Morocco
- What was the US policy washington had begun that was carried out until the Barbary war?
- Policy of appeasement
- What is the policy of appeasment?
- Give 'em what they want and hope they'll go away and leave you alone
- What was the problem with the Barbary countries?
- pirates lurking around North Africa
- How did appeasement come into affect with the Barbary war?
- We had paid the countries to leave American ships alone
- Why did the Barbary countries become a problem to Jefferson?
- He refused to pay the tribute
- What four things did the Barbary Pirates do?
- 1. Attacked American Ships
2. Stole the ships
3. Stole the goods
4. Sold American sailors into slavery
- What did the Barbary powers do?
- Declared war on the US?`
- What was the famous saying by Jefferson about Barbary?
- "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"
- How did the Barbary War resolve?
- US and Barbary countries agreed to end war and not attack each others ships
- The Lousiana Purchase purchased what?
- The Lousiana Territory
- Who controlled the Louisiana Territory before it was purchased?
- France, and before that Spain
- Why did France control the L.T.?
- Bonaparte conquered Spain
- Why is it speculated Bonaparte was willing to sell the LT?
- 1. Needed money to carry on a series of wars
2. Malaria had killed thousands of people in the New World
3. Bonaparte was getting sick and didn't really think it through
- Who did Malaria kill in the New World?
- Soldiers stationed in Haiti
- How much was the LT sold for?
- $15 Million
- Who did Jefferson send to France to negotiate?
- James Monroe
- Who did Jefferson send to explore the LT?
- Merriwether Lewis
- What were the 3 goals of the Lewis and Clark expidition?
- 1. Find a Northwest Passage
2. Collect data on the Flora and the Fauna
3. Map the area
- What is the Northwest passage?
- Water passage across the entire continent to Asia, believed to be the Missouri river
- Who was Thomas Jefferson's cheif aid?
- Merriwether Lewis
- What city did the L&C expedition start at?
- St. Louis
- Upon what river did the expedition travel up?
- What did L&C do when they reached the falls on the Missouri?
- Portaged 17 miles around the falls
- Who was the Shoshone Cheif in relation to Sacagawea?
- Her brother
- Why did the natives gather around the river?
- To watch the men drown because of the rapids
- What river did L&C take to the Pacific?
- The Columbia
- Who eventually became the governer of the Louisiana Territory?
- Merriwether Lewis
- What was the significance of the Louisiana Purchase/Lewis and Clark expedition?
- 1. Inspired settlement
2. Led to Manifest Destiny
3. Beginning of the end for Native Americans
- What was Manifest Destiny?
- America was given a divine mission: to expand all the way across the continent
- Who was the famous Dual between?
- Aaron Burr v. Alexander Hamilton
- What was Burr's position?
- Vice President
- What was Alexader Hamilton's position>
- Who ran for governor of New York?
- Aaron Burr
- What did Hamilton tell the people of NY to do?
- to Not vote for Burr
- What was the outcome of Burr's run for govorner?
- Lost, and blamed Hamilton
- Why was Burr offended at Hamilton?
- He didn't apologize
- What did Burr do when he was offended by Hamilton?
- Challenged him to a dual
- Where did Burr v. Hamilton Dual take place?
- Weehawken, NJ
- Who won the Dual?
- Aaron Burr
- Who was France's greatest enemy during Jefferson's term?
- Great Britain
- How was the US making a lot of money during Jefferson's term?
- Selling goods to France and GB
- Why was the Embargo Act passed?
- British and French were ocasionally attacking our ships, mostly British were impressing our men
- What did the Embargo Act say/
- US would stop selling goods to France and GB
- What was the result of the Embargo Act?
- Economy dropped
- What was the controversy about Jefferson concerning?
- His slave, Sally Hemings
- What was the rumor about Sally Hemings?
- That Jefferson was the fater of Hemings' children
- Who was president after Jefferson?
- James Madison
- Who is considered the Father of the constitution?
- James Madison
- What party was Madison a part of?
- What law did Madison pass immiedately?
- Non-Intercourse Act
- What was the Non-Intercourse Act?
- It was legal to sell goods to every country except GB and France
- What was the sucess of the Non-Intercourse Act?
- It didn't help that much
- What law was named after Nathaniel Macon?
- Macon's Bill #2
- What did Macon's Bill #2 say?
- It was allowable to trade with France and GB as long as they respected our neutrality
- Who gave their word to Madison about Macon's Bill #2?
- GB: Foreign minister, David Erskine
France: Napoleon Bonaparte
- What did GB and france do in regard to Macon's Bill #2?
- Lied, continued attacking ships
- Who was the War of 1812 between?
- US and Great Britain
- What were the main causes of the War of 1812?
- 1. Repeated violation of America's Neutrality (by GB)
2. Many people in America wanted to take Canada
3. It was believed that GB was stirring up trouble in regard to the Native Americans
- What was the conflict with Native Americans called (Battle)?
- Battle of Tippecanoe
- What was Tippecanoe?
- A river in present-day Indiana
- Who led Americans in the Battle of Tippecanoe?
- Govorner of Indiana Territory, William Harrison
- Who was the Battle of Tippecanoe with?
- Who was the Shawnee cheif?
- Where was Tecumseh when Harrison brought in his men?
- Out of the village
- Who was in charge while Tecumseh was gone?
- His brother, The Prophet, AKA Tenskwatawa
- Who won the Battle of Tippecanoe?
- Harrison, he become a national hero
- What are another names for the War of 1812?
- 2nd War for Independence
Mr. Madison's War
- What were the 3 aspects of the War of 1812?
- 1. Washington, DC
2. Battle of Baltimore
3. Battle of New Orleans
- What happened in Washington DC during the War of 1812?
- It was burned to the ground by the British
- Why was the burning of Washington DC significant?
- Symbolically it meant a lot, strategically it wasnt' important. It was the only time in US history
- In what battle was teh National Anthem composed?
- Battle of Baltimore
- Who wrote the words to the Star Spangled Banner?
- Francis Scott Key
- Who was captured by the British in the war of 1812?
- Dr. William Beanes
- Who went to negotiate with the British on the release of Beanes?
- Francis Scott Key and a companion
- What did the British do with Beanes and Key?
- Let Beanes go, kept Key and his companion
- What fort were the British going to attack in the Battle of Baltimore?
- Fort McHenry
- What was the original name of the Star Spangled Banner?
- The Defense of Fort McHenry
- What battle is considered the most famous battle of the War of 1812?
- Battle of New Orleans
- Why wasn't the Battle of New Orleans really in the War of 1812?
- Technically the war was over but word had not arrived yet
- Who won the Battle of Baltimore?
- Who led the Battle of New Orleans?
- Andrew Jackson
- What sort of "crew" did Jackson work with?
- "Motley Crew"
- What's a "Motley crew"?
- Just a bunch of guys
- What groups aided Jackson in the Battle of Baltimore?
- Pirates, Soldiers, native americans, freed slaves
- Who was the Pirate leader in the Battle of Baltimore?
- Jean Lafeyette
- Who was the British leader in the Battle of Baltimore?
- Edward Packingham
- Who did the Battle of New Orleans make a national hero?
- Andrew Jackson
- What was Jackson's nickname and why?
- "Old Hickory" - he was tough and strong
- What treaty ended the War of 1812?
- Treaty of Ghent
- What was the resolve of the War of 1812?
- A draw
- What term describes the Treaty of Ghent? (Latin and meaning)
- "Status quo ante bellum"
"The way things were before the war"
- What territory was lost by both sides in the war of 1812?
- What was the significance of the war of 1812?
- 1. We didn't lose to the British
2. Heightened American nationalism
- What did the war of 1812 re-establish?
- What is nationalism?
- Feeling of oneness... patriotic pride
- What is one speculated reason the US didn't lose the war of 1812?
- British were at war with Napoleon in Europe
- Who was president after the War of 1812 and under what party?
- James Monroe, Republican
- What was the time after the war of 1812 considered?
- Era of Good Feelings
- What were the 2 reasons for "good feelings"?
- 1. High Morale (We held them off!)
2. Time of political cooperation
- Why was the Era of Good Feelings a time of political cooperation?
- Federalists were obsolete
- What is a free state?
- A state in which slavery is illegal
- What was the split up of the states before the Missouri compromise?
- 11 free states, 11 slave states
- What was the representation in Senate for the states?
- 2 representatives per state
- Who is known as the "Great Compromiser"?
- Henry Clay
- What was Henry Clay's position?
- "Speaker of the House" -- Leader of the House of Representatives
- What were the 3 parts of the Missouri Compromise?
- 1. Admit Missouri as a slave state
2. Admit Maine as a free state
3. Missouri Compromise line
- What lattitude was the Missouri compromise line?
- In what territory was the Missouri compromise line?
- Louisiana Territory
- What issue did the Missouri Compromise put off?
- Issue of Slavery
- In what form was the Monroe Doctrine?
- Speech before congress
- What did the Monroe Doctrine say?
- 1. We WILL stay out of European Affairs (Eastern hemisphere)
2. Europe MUST stay out of the Western Hemisphere
- What was the cultural movement after the Monroe Doctrine?
- Who was the leader of transcendentalism?
- Ralph Waldo Emerson
- What essay/book was written by Emerson?
- What does Transcend mean?
- To rise above - acieve a spiritual state that transcends the physical body
- What was Emerson's plan to Transcend?
- 1. Withdraw from Society (involvement with nature)
2. Against conformity
3. Emphasizing feelings/emotions
- What was the emphasis on feelings a reaction to?
- Englightenment, or "Age of Reason"
- Who was the secodn writer of Transcendentalism?
- Henry David Thoreau
- What book did Thoreau write?
- What inspired Walden?
- 2 years and 2 months living in the country by Walden Pond
- What did "Walden" inspire the creation of?
- Utopian Communities
- What is a Utopian community?
- Perfect society
- What Utopian community was home to a great American writer?
- Brook Farm
- WHo started Brook Farm?
- George Ripley, a minister
- How did people live in Brook Farm?
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