Glossary of 18. Toxicology
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- What is Toxicology?
- The science of poisons and their effects on people.
- What are 3 factors that make a toxin worth testing for?
- -Whether antidoe is available
-If detection can exclude a medical condition
-If quantifying toxin will affect management of overdose
- What are 6 toxic drugs that have antidote available?
- 1. Acetaminophen
- Which 5 toxins are important to quantify for management?
- 1. Acetominophen
5. Tricyclic Antidepressants
- What are 9 classes of toxic agents?
- 1. Analgesics
7. Noxious gases
9. Drugs of abuse
- What are the analgesics?
- What cardiac drug is toxic?
- What stimulant is toxic?
- -Tricyclic Antidepressants
- What depressant is toxic?
- What are the 5 volatiles?
- 1. Ethanol
5. Ethylene Glycol
- What are 8 toxic metals?
- 1. Chromium
- What noxious gas are we mainly concerned with?
- Carbon monoxide
- How is acetaminophen toxic?
- Causes glutathione depletion resulting in hepatic toxicity
- How are salicylates toxic?
- -Dpress the respiratory centers in the medulla
-Can cause respiratory alkalosis resulting in metabolic acidosis.
- What is the treatment for SSA toxicity?
- How is Digoxin toxic?
- Can cause cardiac, gastrointestinal and visual abnormalities
- What are the most common life-threatening drugs?
- Tricyclic antidepressants.
- What methods are used to measure TCAs?
- TLC, HPLC, and Immunoassays
- What is the antidote for TCA overdose?
- What are the general symptoms of TCA overdose? (3)
- How is iron toxic when overdosed? (4 changes)
- -Damages GI mucosa
-Decreases cardiac output
-Hemoconcentration causes cardiac overload
-Alters Kreb's cycle
- What is the treatment for iron overload?
- How is lithium toxic?
- -Renal toxicity because it undergoes renal clearance.
-Dehydration - is a diuretic
- What is the therapy for lithium overdose?
- -Volume replacement
- How are the Volatiles measured?
- Via Gas chromatography
- How is Ethanol toxic?
- Causes intoxication - by drinking too much; common.
- How is Methanol toxic?
- It metabolizes to formic acid, resulting in:
-optic nerve damage
- What is the treatment for Methanol overdose?
-Ethanol to 100 mg/dl
- What is the metabolite of isopropanol?
- What is ethylene glycol in that makes it toxic?
- What makes ethylene glycol toxic?
- -Causes metabolic acidosis
-Renal damage by forming oxalate crystals
- Can ethylene glycol be analysed by GC?
- No; it is not volatile
- Which alters serum osmolality the most; EtOH, Isopropanol, or Methanol?
- Isopropanol > MetOH > EtOH
- What is the toxic mechanism of LEAD?
- -Inhibits amino levulinic acid dehydratase
-Result: altered heme synthesis
- What does lead toxicity manifest in?
- How is lead toxicity treated?
- What are toxic lead levels in
- Children <10 mg/dl
Adults <30 mg/dl
- When should chelation take place (for what levels)?
- at >60 mg/dl
- What samples are used for lead analysis?
- -Whole blood
- What type of assay is done for lead?
- Atomic absorption spec
- Why is Carbon Monoxide toxic?
- -Binds heme and decreases its O2 capacity
-Increases the remaining O2's affinity for Hb too.
- What is the toxic effect of CO poisoning?
- What 2 methods are used for CO detection?
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