Glossary of 15 vocab

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Phillip II
He sent Spanish troops under Duke of Alva to pacify the Low Countries. There was a 10% sales tax on every transaction causing hardship in a commercial society and resulting in a civil war. Phillip II sent his nephew Alexander Farnese, duke of Parma, to crush the revolt. Finally, Antwerp fell. Calvinism was forbidden in these territories& Protestants had to convert or leave. He spent most of his days in the Escorial
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
(1394-1460) established a school of the study of geography& navigation. He also sent annual expeditions down the Western coast of Africa. The financial support of Prince Henry led to Portuguese success in the spice trade.
Michel de Montaigne 1533-1592
Montaigne (1533-1592). He was from a bourgeois family. He studied law, received a classical education. He condemned the nobility for being more concerned with war than education. He retired at 38 from his judicial post to devote the rest of his life to study. His wealth provided him the leisure. He developed a new literary genre, the essay, meaning to test or try to express his thoughts& ideas. Montaigne’s essay “On Cannibals” reflects the impact of overseas discoveries on Europe. He rejected the idea that one culture was superior to another.He inaugurated an era of doubt.
Low Countries
so called since much of the land lies under sea. It consisted of 17 provinces that Emperor Charles V (1519-1556) had inherited. These were vital sites of successful commercial life. Antwerp, located on the Scheldt R. was the intermediary for international shipping. They had relative autonomy: self-governing, right to make their own laws& collect its own taxes. Their only similarity was a common ruler. Delegates from various provinces met in the States General but vital decisions had to approved by the province
a board of 12-15 judges that served as his advisory council& the highest judicial body
Charles III (1759-1788)
(1759-1788) introduced intendants. These royal officials possessed broad military administrative& financial authority within their intendancy& responsible to the monarchy.
Peace of Westphalia
signaled the end of the medieval ideal of a unified Christian society governed by one political ruler, the emperor, to whom all rulers were theoretically subordinate& one church, to which all people belonged. treaties signed at Munster& Osnabruck, marked the end of conflicts over religious faiths. It also recognized the sovereign, independence authority of more than 300 Ger. princes. This limited the emperors’ power, but the Holy Roman Empire continued to function as a federation. The independence of the Netherlands was acknowledged. It denied the papacy right to participating in German religious affairs.
Habsburg-Valois Wars
In 1559 France&Spain who signed the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. An instance when finances was a problem. To solve this Francis used traditional methods such as, increasing taxes& heavy borrowing. He also used new methods such as the sale of public offices& a treaty with the papacy.
Edict of Nantes
passed in 1598 which granted Huguenots liberty of conscience& liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns. This aided in French absolutism in the 17th century by restoring internal peace
Council of Blood
started by Phillip II. On March 3, 1568, 1500 men were executed and his sister Margaret resigned.
Elizabethan& Jacobean
There was little creativity in Eng. especially in the latter part of Elizabeth’s reign& in the 1st yrs of James I (1603-1625). Elizabethan& Jacobean are used 2 designate the Eng. Music, poetry, prose& drama of this per.

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