Glossary of 13 vocab

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These were Northern Italian cities. They were sworn associations of free men seeking independence from local nobles. Guilds were what formed communes.
what attracted nobles to communes?
1)nobles were attracted by trade
2)the rising value of urban estates
3)new public offices that were available in communes
4)chances for an advantageous marriage
These were heavily taxed and disenfranchised people. As a result, in many cities they revolted and formed Republics that did not last long sinice they could not obtain the support of other groups.
AKA oligarchies (rule by merchant aristocrats)
By 1300 Signorial government manipulated laws, constitutionis etc and only a small restricted class could govern.
They governed Florence, Italy from 1434-1494. They were exiled by Charles VIII
Pope Alexander VI
He was able to reassert papal authority in papal lands due to the aid he received politically and militarily from his son Cesare Borgia.
League of Cambrai
As Venice began to be viewed as a threat King Louis XII of France along with Pope Leo X decided to gang up on Venice (forming this league in 1508). The goal of the league was to obtain Venice's mainland possessions.
Francesco Petrach
Petrach was born in 1304 and died in 1374. Petrach, along w/his contemporaries believed that he was living in a new age. he also thought the first two centuries of roman civilization to be the peak of human civilzation. He considered the 1000 yr period between the 4th& 14th centuries (after the Germanic invasion)to be a Middle age. Finally, he thought he saw the 14th century as a new golden age of intellectual achievement
Pope Nicholas V
Pope nicholas was born in 1447 and died in 1555. He was an erudite who made plans to have the Vatican Library built for the 9000 manuscripts he had collected. Pope Sixtus (1471-1484) is the guy who actually oversaw the building of the Vatican
What is Humanism
This was the revived interest in the classics and the antique way of life. This resulted in a new secular spirit. This interest in the classics was referred to as the "new learning" or Humanism, a term coined by Leonardo Bruni(1370-1444), a rhetorician/historian.
what were some of the changes that Humanisn represented?
Human beings were actually emphasized. Our achievements, interests and capabilities were stressed. Previously, medieval writers had accepted the pagan/classical beliefs uncritically. Those of the Renaissance were more critical of their authority and were aware of presentism.Medieval writers used the classics to reveal God while Humanists used it to understand human nature.
Pico della Mirandola
Basically he saaid that there were no limits as to what man could accomplish. This Florentine writer believed this because he thought that man had great dignity since he was made as Adam in the image of God .
what is secularism
It was the concern with the material world. People explained what they could within the imits of their senses. There was focus on the here and now. Usury& lending became common. With new economic freedom people had leisure and were able to patronize the arts. But, the burden of shipping routes, costs etc led ppl away from God.
when did Lorenzo Valla live& die?
Who wrote On the False Donation of Constantine?
Lorenzo published his study On the False Donation of Constantine in 1444. This weakened papal claims to temporal/earthly authority since it showed that an 8th century document giving the papacy authority over land in Western Europe was a fake.
who was the father of modern criticism?
Lorenza Valla (1406-1457)he represented the new secular spirit at work thru his use of applying skepticism to old works.
who is Baldassare Castiglione?
He wrote the Courtier, which was his attempt of expressing what he considered to be the ideal renaissance man. This would be a man educated in a wide variety of subjects esp. eloquent speech. This book influenced social patterns of elite Renaissance groups and early modern eur.
Who was the girl that chose marriage over Learning
Laura Cereta was married at the age of 15 and was widowed at 18. Instead of marrying again she learned languages, philosophy, theology and mathematics. She endured the envy of womena nd the hositility of men who felt threatened. She despised "empty women" and believed that women's inferiority stemmed from themselves. At the time men believed that an educated women violated nature and ceased to be a woman.
When did Niccolo Machiavelli live and die?
He was born in 1469 and died in 1527
What was The Prince about and who wrote it?
This book,written by Machiavelli, was about how a ruler could gain, maintain, and increase political power. He reasoned that princes could manipulate the ppl in anyway he saw necessary since they humans are selfish. He advocated that political action that was not hindered by moral consideration. He said amoral action might be the best choice in a given situation.
Who wrote On Family and what was it about?
Leon Battisti Alberti wrote this book and in it stresses that a wife's role should be restricted to food, orderliness of the house and supervision of the servants
Who was a symbol of Italy's internal instability and why?
the Florentine friar,Savaronola was initally popular in Italy, but the ppl tired of his moral denunciations and he was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI. He was against sodomitical activites
Northern Humanists
The Nrthern humanists are different from the Italian ones since they focused on Christian ideals. They thought that the best elements of classical and christian culture should be mixed. They stressed the use of reason. They had fiath in the power of the human intellect to bring about moral and institutional reform. They thoguht that humans were corrupted by sin but fundamentally good. And that thru education ppl could improve.
What man was born in 1478 and died in 1535 that wrote Utopia
Thomas More (1478-1535) was trained as a lawyer. He married and practiced law. He was interested in the classics. He served under Henry VIII and was sent as an ambassador to Flanders where he wrote Utopia (1516).utopia means nowhere and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island. All kids received good education. Adults divided time between labor and learning. There was social equality. The citizens of Utopia were able to live an ideal life since htey lived by reasons. His ideas were original in the 16th century.. He said that property promoted vice (meaning ppl weren't fundamentally evil to him). For him the key of improvement lay in improving social institutions and hence ppl
What asserted the superiority of a general council over the papacy? what did this do?
The Pragmatic sanciton of Bourges gave the french king power over appointing bishops and deprived the pope of ecclesiastical. It established Gallican and French liberties since it affirmed the special rights of the French king over the church. control of the church and army consolidated the power of the french king
This man was born in 1466 and died in 1536. He was orphaned as a small boy and forced to enter a monstery. Who is he and what'd he do?
Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536) was influenced by the monastery he had hated to appreciate the classics and to excell at Latin.He applied his humanistic learning to the Bible. He wrote the Education of a Christian Prince, which combined both idealistic and practical suggestions on the formation of a prince's character. He advocated that the prince study that classics.
what other book did he publish in 1519?
The Praise of Folly was a worldly social satire that blamed the church for ignorance and was a plea for people to return to the spontaneous and childlike faith in god. He stressed the translation of the bible so that even commoners could read it. There are two major themes that can be found throughout his books: first, that education is the key to moral improvement and that the bible/classics should be the base of education. secondly, it revolved around the philosophy of christ
Who was the more secular author, compared to More& Erasmus?
Francois Rabelais (1490-1533). He wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel a spoof on contemporary French society. Similar to Erasmus& more Rabelais didnt denounce institutions. However, he used gross humor instead of intellectual wit to prove his point. Like More Rabelais believed that institutions molded character and that education was the key to a moral/healthy life.
The Hundred years war 1337-1453
what did the evil or rebellious nobles/aristocrats from ENGLAND have to be scared about
The court of the Star Chamber dealth with real/potential aristocratic threats. It was named after the stars painted on its ceiling.It applied Roman principles of Roman law.There were no juries, the accused couldnt see the evidence against them, sessions were secret and torture could be ussed
Who did the Tudors rely on to keep the peace?
The tudors had unpaid local officials, justices of Peace. These influential landowners handled all the work of local government.
new christians. converted jews
what was the catholic kings of spain
these monarchs had the right to select bishops in Spain and other Hispanic territories. They established a national church

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