Glossary of 13The Reformation
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- What problems developed in the church in the early 16th century?
- There was corruption and self-indulgence, church officials were living a lavish lifestyle, selling of indulgences was common.
- What was an indulgence?
- A paper granting you pardon for all your sins in exchange for money to the Church.
- What monk allegedly nailed 95 Theses criticizing the sale of indulgences on the door of Wittenburg Church?
- Martin Luther, in 1517.
- What was the result of Martin's criticism of the Church?
- He was ordered to Wurms, Germany, to defend his views. When he refused to recant, he was excommunicated.
- What were some of Luther's ideas?
- Faith alone will save you. The Bible is the sole source of religious authority/truth.
- What church was formed by Luther?
- the Lutheran Church.
- What changes were made by Luther?
- He simplified the sacraments to baptism and communion. He translated the Bible into the vernacular (German) instead of Latin.
- What French lawyer moved to Geneva Switzerland to form a religious community?
- John Calvin.
- What happened to him?
- He was likewise ex-communicated.
- What were some of Calvin's ideas?
- The Bible is the source of religious truth. That God shows his favor on the elect (chosen) by their success on Earth.
- What was Calvin's idea of presdestination?
- It was the idea that God already knows who is going to be saved/go to h-e double hockey sticks.
- What churches came out of Calvin's ideas?
- The Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, many Scandinavian Protestant churches, etc. etc.
- Why did Henry the VII of England want to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon?
- She had given birth to a daughter and he wanted a son. He wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, a lady in waiting.
- What did Henry do when the pope refused to annul his marriage?
- He pushed Parliament into passing the Act of Supremacy, making him the head of the Church of England.
- What did the Church do when Henry approved this act?
- It excommunicated him.
- What church came out of Henry VIII's actions?
- The Church of England (Anglican Church).
- What Catholic Council in 1545 met to attempt to halt the breakaway of all these Protestant branches?
- The Council of Trent.
- What was the name for the reaffirming of Catholic church teachings called?
- The Catholic Counter Reformation.
- What was the Inquisition?
- It was the Catholic church's inquests/trials of heretics (those going against Church teachings).
- What was the Codex?
- An index of forbidden books such as those written by Luther or Calvin or translations of the Bible.
- Who were the Jesuits?
- A religious order that spread Catholicism throughout the world.
- What were the effects of the Reformation period?
- (1)Religious unity in WESTERN Europe ended; (2) One hundred years of Religious Wars; (3) formation of many protestant churches.
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