Glossary of 11Crusades
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- What new religion sprang up and expanded in the Middle East after 622 AD (the Hejira)?
- What happened in 1054 to European Christendom?
- The Schism: Eastern European Byzantine Empire broke away from the Western European Roman Catholics and formed the Orthodox Christian Church.
- Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote a letter asking for help because of what invaders to the Byzantine Empire?
- The Seljuk Turks/Muslims.
- What Pope answered the call of Alexius' letter?
- Pope Urban II.
- What did Pope Urban call for?
- He called for all Christians to go to the holy land and win it back for Christians.
- What were the Pope's motives for this Crusade?
- He hoped to stop feudal knights fighting among them-selves, to reunite the Byzantine Empire/Orthodox Church, and wanted to keep the Holy Land sites open for Christian pilgrims.
- What did the Pope offer as an incentive (reward) for the First Crusade?
- He offered forgiveness of sins if they went/ participated on a Crusade.
- What sorts of people participated?
- Knights and nobles, kings, peasants, children.
- How did Crusader pilgrims act as they crossed Europe?
- They pillaged, robbed, etc. They attacked Jews for not being Christians.
- Once the better trained knights arrived in the Holy Land, what was the outcome of the First Crusade?
- (1) They seized Jerusalem and a large area of Palestine; (2) they formed four Crusader states (like feudal lord's kingdoms) in the Holy Land; (3) they horrified the Muslims and even the Byzantines with their actions.
- Did the European Crusaders keep Jerusalem for the Christians?
- No - they lost Jerusalem.
- Did the Europeans win the Crusades?
- No - all their lands in the Middle East were lost.
- What two famous Christian and Muslim leaders faced each other during the 3rd Crusade?
- Richard the Lionheart of England and Saladdin (A Kurdish/Iraqi lord)
- What disaster befell the Fourth Crusaders?
- They fell into debt in Venice and had to sack two cities before the Venetians would transport them on the Crusades. They sacked Zara and the Byzantine capital of Constantinople.
- What were some religious effects of the Crusades?
- Muslim- Christian hatred and distrust; Pope and Catholic Church had a short term boost in popularity but a long term decline.
- What were some political effects of the Crusades?
- The Byzantine Empire was weakened by not only Muslim Turks but by the Fourth Crusaders sacking their city.
- What were some economic effects of the Crusades?
- Northern Italian city-states became rich from shipment of crusaders and trade goods; Europeans revived interest in travel and trade with Asia and the Near East.
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