Glossary of 11. Ammonia and Uric Acid
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- What are the 2 main sources of ammonia?
- 1. Intestinal bacteria
2. oxidative amino acid deamination
- Where does Urea come from?
- Purine breakdown - Adenosine and Guanosine
- By what 2 ways does Ammonia get removed from the body?
- 1. Urea production
- What disease states are associated with Ammonia over-production? (3)
- 1. Liver disease
2. Reye's syndrome
3. Inborn errors of metabolism (in the urea cycle)
- What disease states are associated with overproduction of urea? (6)
- 1. Gout
2. increased nucleoprotein catabolism
3. Decreased renal function
4. Inherited defects
- What 4 methods can be used to determine Ammonia concentration?
- 1. Diffusion
3. Ion-selective electrode
- What wavelength is NADH measured at?
- What 2 methods can be used for measuring Urea?
- Colorimetric (tungsten blue)
- What products can be measured in the uricase method for urea?
- Allantoin - at 290 nm
NADH - at 340 nm
- In what 3 ways is Ammonia neurotoxic?
- 1. Causes glutamate depletion
2. Causes cell toxicity
3. Produces a proline analogue
- What 2 enzymes are involved in Ammonia EXCRETION?
- -Glutamine synthetase
- Why is Reye's syndrome associated with Ammonia buildup?
- By taking aspirin after a virus, it reduces the ability to create Urea from NH3
- What cycle do inborn errors of NH3 metabolism affect?
- The urea cycle - therefore, there is ammonia buildup.
- What 2 preanalytic variables can affect Ammonia measurement?
- -Increased protein diet
- Regarding Uric Acid disease states, what 3 inherited disorders are related to it?
- -Metabolism defects
-Defective renal tubular transport of Uric acid.
- What in general causes an increased Uric Acid?
- Increased purine breakdown
- What 2 purines?
-the components of DNA/RNA!!!
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