Glossary of 10Christianity: Early Middle Ages
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- What was Western Europe like during the Dark Ages (500-1000)?
- It was isolated, backward and had very little contact with more advanced civilizations in other parts of the world.
- What groups continued to invade and attack during the Dark Ages?
- Vikings and Magyars and (later) Muslims.
- Between 400 and 700 AD, what did the Germanic tribes do in Western Europe?
- They divided up Western Europe into tiny kingdoms.
- What new religion rose in the Arabian Peninsula in 800 AD?
- Islam (The religion of Muslims)
- What was the importance of the pope crowning Charlemagne as the "Head of the "Holy Roman Empire"? (800 AD)
- (1) It revived the dream of reuniting Europe as a Christian Empire.
(2) It showed that the Church felt it was above secular rulers (kings and emperors) by crowning THEM. Later kings struggle with the popes over power.
- Who headed the Western (Roman Catholic) Church?
- The Pope
- Define SECULAR
- Worldly; having to do with the material world; not related to religion
- Define SACRAMENTS as it relates to Christianity.
- The rituals of the Church that relate to the life of Jesus.
- DEFINE CANON LAW.
- The laws of the Catholic Church. Laws related to the church and clergy.
- DESCRIBE THE PUNISHMENT KNOWN AS EXCOMMUNICATION.
- The Church would shun a person. S/he was not allowed to receive the sacraments nor attend Church.
- What was the Catholic Church punishment known as the "Interdict"?
- This was excommunication for an entire region. No one in the region could receive the sacraments.
- Define CLERGY.
- Priests, monks, those who are the spiritual leaders of the Church.
- DEFINE TITHE.
- Giving 10% of your income to the Church.
- What were the Benedictine rules that monks and nuns followed?
- They must take vows to live a life of (1) poverty (2) chastity (purity) and (3) obedience.
- What activities did monks and nuns do in monasteries and convents?
- (1) constant prayer;
(2) re-copy ancient manuscripts (Bible, religious writings) by hand. It was called Illuminated Manuscripts because it was beautiful calligraphy and often used Gold lettering.
(3) education, hospitals, lodging for travelers.
- What were the Clunaic Reforms?
- They were reforms introduced by the Church to prohibit simony (sale of Church offices to the highest bidder) and revival of the Benedictine Rules. Nobles were NOT to interfere in selection of Church leaders/ officials.
- Where did Jewish communities flourish in Europe?
- Mainly in Islamic Spain. The Islamic world was going through a Golden Age, not a Dark Age, and they tolerated Christians and Jews (although they also had to pay a tax).
- Why did the Holy Roman Empire idea never succeed after Charlemagne's death?
- The Emperors could never get control over the local nobles and rich landowners.
- What is the name for the architectural style of the early Middle Ages that included Roman columns and arches, small slit windows and thick heavy walls?
- What was the subject of most art work in the Middle Ages?
- Virtually all art was about the sacred or religious.
- How did the revival of trade and growth of towns by 1100 influenced culture in the High Middle Ages?
- There was a flowering of art and culture. Universities and education bloomed. Greek ideas were slowly rediscovered. Medieval Literature developed.
- What is the name of the style of architecture that developed for cathedrals using tall spires, gargoyles, stained glass, and flying buttresses to support the weight of the building?
- Gothic churches. See the Cathedral at Notre Dame as an example.
- Why did universities grow in the Middle Ages?
- The Church wanted better educated clergy. Royal rulers needed literate advisors and bureaucrats. Sons of wealthy townspeople wanted these jobs.
- In what way was much of the medieval university learning not really "new"?
- Western Europeans had lost the ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans but the Islamic world had preserved and translated the writings in Arabic. In Muslim Spain, Jewish schoars translated these works into Latin, the language of Christian European scholars.
- How did ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle's writings challenge Church scholars and teachings?
- Aristotle taught that people should use reason to discover basic truths for themselves. Christians in the Middle Ages, were told to accept ideas on faith. The Church was the final authority.
- What is the name for the attempt of medieval scholars to resolve the conflict between Faith and Reason?
- Scholasticism. These scholars studied Muslim Philosopher Averroes and Jewish Rabbi Maimonides. Thomas Aquinas believed that Faith and Reason could exist in harmony.
- What did Thomas Aquinas conclude in his Summa Theologica?
- That Faith and Reason exist in harmony, because God ruled over an orderly universe.
- What rediscoveries were made in Science and Math?
- European scholars studied science works by Arabic and ancient Greek scholars. Yet it would take many centuries to change the way Christian thinkers viewed the world. They also adopted Arabic numerals instead of Roman numerals.
- What was expected of women in the Middle Ages?
- Few were educated. Most were expected to raise children and stay at home. One could also become a nun. But women were stereotype as either sinful Eves or pure Madonnas (Marys).
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