Glossary of 107C Experiments
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- WHITE ET AL.
- -Gave injections into different areas of the caudated to get improvements in certain memory. [Habit Learning]
- -T-maze with Rats;
-Double dissociation of Place Memory: Hippocampus, and Habit and Response: Caudate
- Showed that the caudate and putamen are functionally different and it is based on the Cortex that is innervates
- Basal Ganglia is involved in a lower for of memory (stimulus response; aka habit learning) and is in parallel circuitry with the temporal lobe
- Confirmed Packard and McGaugh's findings using Parkinson and Amnesia patients
- Recorded from monkey VTA, Nucleus Accumbance, & Nigro-Stratal (all DA Neurons)
Found that they fire for novel and prediction of expected stimuli
- -Covert Attention Task
-Invalid is slower than valid;
-Theory: Disengage = Parietal CTX; Move = superior colliculus (which in close communication with FEF); Engage = Pulvinar of that thalamus
- Alzehiemer Patients (slight cortical damage and destroyed colenergic neurons) had trouble with the invalid Posner task aswell. This points that the Posner theory might be more complicated.
- -Legioned the Nucleus basalis magnocellularis legions to get poor invalid respnses; Estrogen helps protect.
-Yet another complication of the POSNER estrogen protects from complete devastion
- -immuno toxins were set intlegion the ch neuroin the basal fe
d poor on invaltrials
-Cholenergic input (BF-->CTX) reponsible for invalid trials
- -Primate experiments
-LC legioned = deficency in Nor Epinephrine
-NorEp is also involved in orientation & attention(especially in 1.c Frontal)
- -Vigilence task
-Medial PreFrontal Cortex Filters out/ Negates distractor signals in overt trials
-Alcohol & lack of Ach from the BF to the CTX inhibits mPRF
-mPFC is key in attention and focusing to block out distractors
- -primates and humans have LIP pathway V2->V4
- WALLACE et al.
- -Used Morse water maze
-Vestiular systems were inhibited and tested in cued; only light; and dark.
-Without Visual Info (eg dark) the Vestibular system are crucial. They are thought to tune the place fields.
- TAUBE et al.
- -confirmed WALLACE by recording very diffuse palce cells in vestibular legioned rats in the dark
- VAN GROEN
- -Rats with legioned thalamus has poor spatial mapping w/o cues
-While hippocampus & cortex are the most refined and primary; there are other rough systems in place as well like the thalamus and parietal CTX.
- UNKNOWN (Probably Chiba)
- Twelve Arm Radial Maze
Food 1 time only(Cntrl: 2nd time slower if at all; Hipp: as if 1st time; Partl: 2nd slower)
Food Replaced (Cntrl: Faster 2nd time; Hipp: Faster 2nd time; Partl: same speed as 1st.)
Double dissociation: Hippocampus=episodic
Parietal= Perceptual spatial Memory
- -recorded place cells in the enterhinal cortex, yet they were diffuse and unreliable.
- FROM Robert Clark's Lecture (no source)
- -Enriched rats = increased dendrites(ie thicker); increased brain weight; increase connection (Unclear if due to moblity or learning
- Looking for Engrams of Memory
-While pure memory encoding is difficult to find due to connections and projections, Interpositus in the cerebellum is essential for association memory
- -Compartmentalized the brain w/ respect to function.
-From Rosteral to Caudal(Affect;Own Response; Space/Time; Sensory)
- ALBERT et al.
- -face recognition between hippocampal damage and Korsakoff's
-Amnesia Patients did well
-K.S. did not
- -gave stimulus into Amygdala.
-Got Emotional Aspects(Fear;Other emotions;Deja Vu)
-Physiological Effects(Hallucinations;increase synpathetic nervous system;Epigastric feeling)
-Behavoir Effects:(Autonomic Coupling
-Amygdala is the key player for emotion
- CAPP and GALLAGER
- -Rabbits can run a maze w/o a hippocampus, yet poorly
-Other system pick up for lost parts and there is more than one spatial map.
- MORRISON et al.
- -fMRI of hungry versus satisfied
-VT cortex &IT cortex fired for both but Amygdala also fired for Hungry
- SOLOMONE and colleages
- -T-maze w/ motivation
-Can tell intesity
-N. Acc. = motivation center
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