Glossary of 1. Endocrinology
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- What are the 4 main functions of hormones?
- 1. Regultn of Growth/Developmnt
2. Homeostatic control
3. Integration of reproduction
4. Behavioral effects
- What is the source of hormones?
- The endocrine system (cells, glands, and some neurons).
- What makes a given cell a TARGET cell for a hormone?
- The presence of a specefic receptor on that cell's surface or internal in the cytoplasm or nucleus.
- What are the 2 main classes of hormones?
- 1. Steroids
- What transports hormones throughout the body?
- The blood
- What are steroids?
- Hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex, testes, ovaries, and placenta.
- What are 4 examples of steroids?
- Cortisol, aldosterone, estradiol, testosterone.
- What are the 4 chemical classes of non-steroids?
Give 2 examples for each class.
- 1. Amines (epi/norepi)
2. Peptides (oxytocin/ADH)
3. Proteins (GH, insulin)
4. Glycoproteins (FSH, TSH)
- What makes steroids and nonsteroids different?
- Their target action mechanisms:
-Steroids: gene activation
-Nonsteroids: 2nd msgr mechanism
- How do steroids cause gene activation? (5 steps)
- 1. Small, lipid soluble.
2. Act on cells w/ cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors
3. If necessary, horm-recptr complex moves into nucleus.
4. Complex binds DNA, stimulating gene transcription and protein synthesis.
5. Hormone effect manifests between minutes to days.
- How do non-steroid hormones cause 2nd msgr mechanisms? (5 steps)
- 1. Don't diffuse into cells.
2. Targets have surface receptor
3. Hormone binds receptor, 2nd msgr released inside cell.
4. 2nd msgr is either: c-AMP or Calcium ion.
5. c-AMP or Ca-Calmodulin complexes activate enzymes for RAPID cascade response (sec to min)
- List 4 ways to control hormones:
- 1. Feedback mechanisms
2. Cyclic secretions
4. Protein binding
- Pituitary pathologies denote:
- Primary = endocrine gland itself
Secndry = controlling gland
Tertiary = master gland
Quatrnry = end organ
- Ok... what are the real names?
- E.g. adrenal gland
- What can cause pituitary deficiency or excess?
- Infections, Tumors, Trauma
- What is the most common pituitary disease cause?
- Prolactin-secreting adenoma
- How is Prl-secreting adenoma diagnosed?
- Prolactin levels >200 ng/mL
- What is the 2nd most common pituitary disease?
- Acromegaly - GH secretion causing Gigantism.
- What is helpful in diagnosing acromegaly gigantism?
- -GH levels in provacative tests
-Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1) esp in borderline cases.
- What is the 3rd most common pituitary disease?
- Cushing's syndrome with increased cortisol due to increased ACTH.
- What are key indicators of cushing's disease?
- What dexameth suppression result indicates pituitary cushings?
- No suppression of ACTH occurs with high dose dexameth.
- What does the Posterior pituitary release?
- 1. ADH
- What does ADH do?
- Concentrates urine
- what does oxytocin do?
- stimulates nonvascular smooth muscle contraction
- myoepithelial cells for milk letdown
- What 2 main pathologies are associated w/ posterior pit?
- 1. siADH
2. Diabetes insipidus
- How does the posterior pituitary behave in
- siADH = hypersecretion of ADH
Diabetes insipidus = not enough ADH, undersecretion
- What common cancers can cause siADH?
- Lung, pancreatic, prostate, hodgkin's lymphoma
- Explain the pathology of siADH
- 1. Increased ADH, retain H2O
2. Volume incr, Decr Na/K
3. Decreased urine/serum osmolality
- What are some common causes of central diabetes insipidus?
- Head trauma, infections, tumors of hypothalamus
- What causes diabetes insipidus to be life-threatening?
- Withholding water
- What is thyroid hormone responsible for? (6 things)
Energy expenditure control
Development and Growth
Protein synthesis, etc.
- What can increase thyroid hormones without affecting the thyroid itself? (2 things)
- 1. Pregnancy
2. Oral contraceptives
- What can decrease thyroid hormones without affecting the thyroid itself? (2 things)
- 1. Malnutrition, protein-wasting
2. Nephrotic syndrome
- What are 4 types of Hypothyroidism?
- 1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- What causes hashimoto's thyroiditis?
- Anti-thyroid antibodies
- What is Cretinism?
- Congenital hypothyroidism with growth and mental retardation.
- What is the treatment for hypothyroidism?
- What are symptoms of HYPERthyroidism?
- 1. Weight loss
2. Menstrual irregularity
4. Heat intolerance/sweating
5. Tachycardia/ incr. reflexes
- What are the classic thyroid panel results in Grave's hyperthyroidism?
- Decreased TSH
Increased FT4, T4/T3
- What are the classic thyroid panel results in TSH-dependent hyperthyroidism?
- Increased TSH
Increased FT4, T4/T3 --> it's because of a pituitary tumor.
- What causes Grave's disease?
- Anti-TSH receptor Antibodies
- What's unique about hashimoto's thyroiditis?
- It can cause either hypo or hyperthyroidism.
- What is the treatment for hyperthyroidism?
- Decrease the production and/or release of T4 by removing the gland, radiation, or medication.
- What are the classic thyroid panel values seen in non-thyroid (euthyroid) illness?
- Decreased T3, increased rT3.
- What lab method is used for measuring TSH?
- Sandwich immunoassays for anti-B and anti-a components.
- What type of specimens can be used for TSH measurement?
Are there special handling specifications?
- Serum or plasma.
Can be frozen - stays stable.
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