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Glossary of 09 - Pathology: Virology - GI, viral exanthem, herpes

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Rotavirus:
-Symptoms: __1__
-More severe in __2__
1. Watery Diarrhea with no Blood or Leukocytes
- Fever
- Vomiting

2. young children
Pathology of Rotavirus:
-mostly affects the __1__
-replicate in __2__
-excreted in __3__
-detected by __4__
1. Small Intestine
2. epithelial cells
3. stool
4. EM or Enzyme immunoassay to detect antigen
EM appearance of Rotavirus

Spoked-wheel
Describe the symptoms with Calici/Norwalk virus (3)

1. Watery Diarrhea
2. Abdominal cramps
3. Vomiting

*24-72 hours
About what percent exposed to Calicivirus will have symptoms?
50%

But all individuals secrete the virus and spread it
Diagnosis of Calicivirus/Norwalk
CLINICAL
Histology of Calicivirus

SMALL
Star-like appearance
Associated with Infantile Diarrhea and cannot be isolated in the laboratory
Adenovirus 40 and 41
Adenovirus 40/41:
-Symptoms

-Incubation and length of illness
- Mild Diarrhea - Profound Dehydration

Incubation: 3-10 days
Length: 6-9 DAYS!!!
Diagnosis of Adenovirus 40/41
CLINICAL
Incubation period for Measles
10 days
Symptoms of Measles

3 C's: Cough, Coryza, Conjunctivitis followed by RASH on 4th day!!!

Koplik spots
Cells that are distinctive to Measles

Warthin-Finkeldey MNGC's in pneumonia
Explain the RASH in Measles
-Appears on 3rd-4th day
-Red papules that COALESCE
-first starts on Forehead, hairline and then spreads down the body
-includes PALMS AND SOLES
4 Complications of Measles
1. Giant Cell Pneumonia
2. Otitis Media
3. POSTINFECTIOUS ENCEPHALITIS
4. SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS (4-17 years later)
When was Measles vaccine introduced?
1968 and has drastically reduced # of cases
Rubella Incubation period
10-21 days
Symptoms of Rubella infection
1. Low fever
2. Lymphadenopathy
3. Maculopapular Rash
Where can Rubella disemminate to?
All organs
Diagnosis of Rubella
Serology (IgM)
Congenital Rubella Syndrome:
-During which Trimerster: 1
-Clinical Triad: 2
1. 1st
2. Deafness, Cataracts, Heart Disease, Glaucoma, Mental Retardation
Clinical Symptoms of Mumps
"MOP"
Meningitis
Orchitis
PAROTITIS
Diagnosis of Mumps
Serology
Parvovirus B19 causes:

Erythema Infectiosum = "slapped cheeck"
Parvo B19 infects these cells
Erythroid Precursors that leads to transient anemia
High risk groups for high morbidity with Parvo B19 infection
Sickle cell patients
Thalessemia
Immunodeficient
Pregnant (Hydrops fetalis)
When was Endemic Smallpox eradicated?
1979
Molluscum Contagiosum is caused by this virus
Poxvirus
Appearance of Molluscum Contagiosum
Wart-like lesion with a dimpled center

What virus is this?

Molluscum contagiousum
Poxvirus
Pathology of HPV infected cells is a characteristic CPE termed ________

Koilocytosis
What is Condylomata Acuminata?

HPV warts on genitals
What are Koilocytes?
vacuolated epidermal cells with shrunken hyperchromatic nuclei
Herpesviruses cause severe disease in these two groups
Neonates

Immunocompromised

Herpesvirus inclusion bodies
Cowdry Type A (acidophilic) Nuclear Inclusions
HSV are shed from vesicles within the how many hours after onset of symptoms?
24-48
Smear used for Herpes and what will it show?
Tzank

MNGC's
Describe Primary infection by HSV
-Ulcerative lesions of gums, tongue, palate, tonsils
- Fever, Cervical Lymphadenopathy
Decscribe Recurrent Infections with HSV
-preceded by burning, itching

-Erythema -> vesicles -> ulcers -> crust
VZV is a __1__ infection with the virus residing in the __2__
1. lifelong

2. sensory ganglia
Reactivation of VZV =
Zoster (Shingles)
Incubation of VZV
10-20 days
Clincial manifestations of Varicella
Fever, chills -> Vesicular lesions
Complications of Varicella
Bacterial Superinfection
Meningoencephalitis
Pneumonia
Hepatitis

What causes Secondary Bacteria infection in Varicella
Scratching the lesions
Histology of Vesicle sample from Varicella

MNGC's

Cowdry Type A nuclear inclusions
Explain Shingles clinical features
UNILATERAL vesicular rash

Excruciating pain
CMV is shed in ....
pretty much all fluids
-urine, saliva, semen, breast milk
CMV is found in these cells
Lymphocytes and Monocytes as a latent infection
Clinical infections of CMV
Mononucleosis (Monospot -)
Hepatitis
DOC for CMV
gancyclovir
Histology of CMV
Owl's eye nuclear inclusion

Swollen cells (cytomegalic)
EBV:
-age who is usually asymptomatic
-Age who develop Mononucleosis
- children

-Older children and adults
Diagnosis of EBV (2)
1. Heterophil Ab's (Monospot)

2. EBV specific Antibody
EBV is associated with this disorder that must be differentiated from ACUTE REJECTION
Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD)
Histology of PTLD

**caused by EBV**
Lymphocytes
-large and atypical
-prominent nuclei
-mitosis
-INDIVIDUAL cell NECROSIS
EBV is also associated with these diseases
African Burkitt's Lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Hair Leucoplakia in IC'ed
Interstitial Pneumonitis and Hepatitis in PEDIATRIC AIDS PATIENTS
HHV-6 causes this disease
Roseola infantum (6th disease)
Clinical features of Roseola infantum
1. high fever (104 C)
2. neck lymphadenopathy
3. rash after 4 days
HHV-8 is associated with:
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Explain histology of Kaposi's sarcoma

1. small slit-like vascular channels
2. extravasation of RBC's
3. spindle cells

What are these called?
What causes them?
Koplik spots

Measles

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