Glossary of 03 - pathology radiation
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- 3 types of Radiation
- 1. Electromagnetic Waves
2. Energetic Charged Particles
3. Neutral High Energy Particles
- 2 Electromagnetic Waves
- 3 Energetic Charged particles
- Neutron radiation = __1___ particles that are a type of ___2____ radiation
- 1. uncharged
- Neutron radiation is produced in large amounts by _________
- nuclear explosions
*accounted for ~2-20% of radiation dose at Hiroshima
- Neutron High Energy Particle
- Neutrons accounted for 2-20% of the radiation dose at _________
- Alpha radiation = release of ____1___ and _____2__ from a __3_____
- 1. 2 protons
2. 2 neutrons
3. fissioning nucleus
- Alpha particles travel only a few ___1__ in air, but are __2___
- 1. mm
- emission of electrons = ?
- Beta radiation
- Beta radiation: All electrons possess a ___1__ charge so they ___2___matter that they interact with. Beta particles travel several meters in ___3__, several cm in __4__, but only mm through __5___
- 1. negative
- Quantity of X or g rays which give rise to 2.09 X 10^9 ion pairs/ cm3 of AIR.
- R (Roentgen)
- Roentgen is not applicable to _______
- particulate radiation
- RAD = ?
- Radiation absorbed dose
- Radiation absorbed dose = a method of estimating radiation effects absorbed by ___________
- substances other than air
- 1 RAD = ?
- 100 ergs of energy absorbed per gram of any substance
- the new international unit replacing the RAD
- Gy (Gray)
- 1 Gy = ?
- 100 RAD
- Infrared radiation = a __1__ wavelength form of __2__ radiation that is __3__. Its effects are commonly experienced as __4__
- 1. long
- Gamma radiation = a __1__ wavelength, __2__ energy form of __3__ radiation that has high __4__ qualities.
- 1. short
3. electromagnetic IONIZING
- X rays = identical to __1__, except that they originate from __2__ the atomic nucleus. They are a __3__ form of radiation.
- 1. gamma rays
- REM = ?
- RAD equivalent (Man)
*man = humans*
- REM multiplies RAD times a quality factor (Q), to approximate absorption of energy by _____
- For humans, the quality factor is assumed to be 1 for _1_ and _2_ rays. So 1 REM = __3__ RAD
- New international unit replacing REM
- Si (Sievert)
- 1 Si = ?
- joules of energy absorbed per kg
- __1__ REM = 1 Sievert
1 __2__ = 1 Sievert
- 1. 100
- Explain Fission
- nucleus of an atom splits into 2 or more smaller nuclei and by products.
It is induced by a thermal neutron being absorbed by the nucleus of Uranium-235 atom
- Explain Fusion
- process in which multiple nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus accompanied by release or absorption of energy
depending on the masses involved.
Nuclei lighter than Iron and Nickel will cause release of energy
- Fallout occurs only after _______
- Explain "Local Fallout"
- Coarse particles caught in the explosion are contaminated with Fission products and "fallout" of the air near the site of the blast
- Explain "Worldwide Fallout"
- Smaller debris carried into the Stratosphere by the heat of the explosion that may not return to earth for years.
- 5 Radionuclides that are of greatest concern
- 1. Strontium-90
4. Carbon- 14
- Strontium-90 half-life
- 28 years
- Strontium-89 half-life
- 51 days
- Strontium-90 is a major hazard due to these two properties
- 1.incorporated into BONE
2. long half-life
- Sources of Strontium-90
- 1. Dairy products
2. surface contamination of fruits and vegetables
- Produces the greatest internal exposure in the weeks following a nuclear explosion
- Iodine-131 is deposited on the surface of __1__, which is then eaten by __2__, where it is secreted in __3__
- 1. vegetation
2. meat animals
- When ingested in animals, Iodine-131 concentrates in the ____
- Iodine-131 half-life is __1__, and is therefore only a threat in __2__
- 1. 8 days
2. local fallout
* Iodine-131 in the stratosphere will decay harmlessly before it falls to earth
- Cesium-137 half-life is __1__. It localizes in __2__ and can represent a genetic hazard from __3__ exposure.
- 1. 30 years
2. soft tissue
- Why is Cesium-137 a lesser risk than Strontium-90
- Cesium is gradually eliminated from the body over several months
- Cesium is used as a source for _________
- modern radiotherapy equipment
- Carbon-14 is formed by __1__ activation of stable __2__ following a nuclear explosion. It is familiar to most people as an isotope used in __3__.
- 1. neutron
3. radiocarbon dating
- Carbon-14 half-life = ?
- 5800 years
*dangerous component of nuclear fallout
- Cells most subject to radiation damage
- rapidly proliferating cells
- Body systems most vulnerable to radiation
- 1. Hematopoietic (bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes)
2. GI system
- > 100,000 RAD
- Molecular Death
- >2000 RAD
- CNS syndrome
- 500-2000 RAD
- GI syndrome
- 50-500 RAD
- Hematopoietic Syndrome
- Late effects
- GI syndrome: death results in a few days from ________
- Circulatory Collapse
- GI syndrome: no treatment except for those with lower doses that might benefit from _______.
3 symptoms associated with GI syndrome.
- Bone Marrow Transplant
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea = NVD Syndrome
- Severity of NVD correlates with ________
- radiation dose
- Hematopoietic Syndrome: has __1__ symptoms that resolve in 1-2 days.
Treatment = __2__
- 1. NVD symptoms
2. Bone Marrow Transplant
- Possible late effects of Hematopoietic Syndrome
- Post-radiation cancers - Leukemia
- Only this Radiation Syndrome can be effectively treated
- Hematopoietic Syndrome
- Hematopoietic Syndrome treatment consists of __1__, plus early __2__
- 1. supportive care
2. HLA typing for BMT
- If HLA is not typed right away, the radiation may _____
- eliminate all white cells (Pancytopenia) and even with transplant survival is poor
- Short-term effects of radiation on Skin:
First seen within __1__ and peak effects at __2__ post-irradiation
- 1. 2-3 days
2. 2-3 weeks
Telangiectasia (spider veins)
- Long-term effect of radiation on Skin
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Soft Tissue has long term risk of ________
- Sarcoma (angiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, etc.)
- Direct Effect of radiation
- disruption of DNA covalent bonds and linkages
- Indirect Effect of radiation
- H2O electrolysis --> oxygen free radicals --> lipids, enzymes, nucleic acids
- Tissue injury is dependent on these 4 factors
- 1. dosage
2. rate of dose delivered
3. LET (linear energy transfer) of the radiation
4. vulnerability to radiation effect
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