Glossary of 02Geographic Setting

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What do people who study geography learn about?
They study the earth and its relationship to the people who live on it.
What is topography?
The study of the Earth's land and water features.
What is a hemisphere?
Half of a sphere.
Name two examples of natural resources.
Oil, coal, natural gas, water, timber, minerals, etc.
What is rural?
Having to do with the countryside.
What is urban?
Having to do with the city; urbanization is the tendency of people to move to major cities for better jobs, infrastructure (plumbing, electricity, etc).
What is urbanization?
The tendency of people to move to cities in search of better jobs, living facilities etc.
What is a subcontinent?
a large area of land geographically separated from the rest of the continent (such as India from Asia).
What are monsoons?
Seasonal WINDS that change direction in South and Southeast Asia.
What is a plateau?
A raised relatively flat area of land.
What does elevation tell you?
It tells you how high a place on the Earth is (how many feet or meters above sea level).
What does arid mean?
dry, as in a desert
What is a natural barrier?
Any physical feature or land or water form that helps to isolate a nation or a region.
What are political boundaries?
Man-made borders decided by governments.
What is a regular or smooth coastline?
One that has few bays or harbors or ports - it is difficult to ship without these things.
What are the advantages of an IRREGULAR (also called rough) coastline?
An irregular coastline has many bays, ports and harbors so shipping and protection of the ships is possible.
What is the topographical land feature called a plain or plains?
An area of land that is level and at a lower elevation than a plateau.
What continent is a peninsula of peninsulas with a very rough or irregular coastline?
What is climate?
The weather conditions of a region over a long long period of time
What is the savannah climate zone/region of Africa?
It is the grasslands dotted with scattered trees. It has unreliable rainfall yet is where many Africans live and farm.
What are the STEPPES of Central Asia or South/Southeastern Russia?
STEPPE is a vast area of land usually relatively level (sometimes slightly hilly) and often treeless and grassy.
What is the definition of "arable"?
land that is fertile or good for farming
What is a peninsula?
It is a land feature. It is a piece of land that juts out surrounded by water on THREE (repeat THREE) sides.
What is a continent?
one of the world's seven landmasses.
What is an isthmus?
What is an archipelago?
a chain of islands
What are relative location measurements on a map or globe?
North, South, East, West, etc. of something.
Why were river valleys such as the Indus, the Yellow, the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia) the location of humanity's earliest civilizations and cities?
These were areas with warm climates and fertile (arable) soil. In spring, floods would deposit silt on the river banks and people began a neolithic (agricultural) revolution by settling and farming there.
What is a strait?
It is a WATER BODY. It is a narrow strip of WATER that connects two larger water bodies.
When a nation is landlocked, what problem does it have?
It has no access to the sea (no border on an ocean or sea).
What continent is 40% savannah and 30% desert, wth many natural features that isolate or limit communication and easy travel?
What feature covers the western half of China?
South America has two major natural features that isolate and distinguish it.
The Andes Mountains and the Amazon River drainage Basin.

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