Glossary of -2- Eukaryotic Cells
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- Eukaryotic Cells
- membrane bound organelles & nucleus
true nucleus containing genetic material. Contain membrane bound organelles.
- Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
- What kingdom are the eukaryotic cells in?
- Network of fibers that form a dynamic framework for support and movement.
- What's in the eukaryotic cells.
- Form cilia, flagella, and centrioles.
- Specialized structures that perform specific functions. Sequester reactions.
Many contain folded membranes (increase surface area)
- Spherical or oval, contains DNA
- Nuclear Envelope/Membrane
- Double membrane perforated by pores. Maintains nuclear shape and regulates transport in and out of the nucleus.
- One or more spherical bodies within the nuclear envelope.
Functions in the synthesis of RNA.
- Rough E.R.
- Studded with ribosomes. Site for synthesis of secretory proteins and membrane molecules.
- Smooth E.R.
- Lack ribosomes
- Formed of 2 subunits: 60s and 40s
Free __________: suspended in the cytoplasm
Bound _________: attached to ER
Sites of protein synthesis.
- Golgi Apparatus
- Flattened sacs, stacked on one another.
Receive and modify products from the ER.
Packages products in vehicles: Transport, Secretory, and Storage.
- stomach of cell
Membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes.
Function in phagocytosis, Recycling cells own organic material
If the leak out, the cell will die
Programmed cell destruction
- Lysosomal storage disease
- Lysosomes lack one of the hydrolytic enzymes.
eg. Tay-sachs disease: lack enzyme to digest lipid. Excess lipid accumulates and damages brain cells.
- Inner membrane folds into cristae
Sites of cellular respiration (ATP production)
- semipermeable/selectively permeable
- What is the name for the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells?
- What are the modes of transport for eukaryotic cells?
- The movement of materials across the plasma membrane.
- Passive transport
- Does not require energy from the cell.
- Simple diffusion
- Molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
- Facilitated diffusion
- A carrier protein combines with a specific substance and moves it across the membrane.
- The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. (water moves from a higher to a lower concentration of water)
Water moves toward a region of higher solute (dissolved substance) concentration.
- The control of water balance
- What are the types of solutions in eukaryotic cells?
- Concentration of dissolved substances are the same inside and outside the cell. No net flow of water.
same inside as outside
high solute concentration
more dissolved solution in environment than in cell.
Low solute concentration
outside in environment
- Osmotic lysis
Bursting of a cell in a hypotonic solution becuase water moves into the cell.
- Shrinkage of the cytoplasm due to loss of water in a hypertonic solution
happens because water leaves cell.
- Channel proteins
- Proteins which form channels through the membrane allowing passsage of certain molecules
gated channels: some can act as "gates" that open and close.
- gated channels:
- some can act as "gates" that open and close.
- Active Transport
- Can move substances against their concentration gradient.
Requires that the cell expend energy (ATP)
eg. Sodium-Potassium pump
- What do eukaryotic cells use for transportation of large particles?
- Bringing it into the cell.
- Vacuole fuses with plasma membrane & expels contents from cell.
brings particles out of cell.
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