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Glossary of *S Largent* Environmental Science Ch 4 Terms

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Demography
vital statistics about people (births; deaths; where they live; total pop. size).
Less-Developed Countries
include countries in Africa; Asia; and Latin America; represent 80% of the world population and more than 90% of all projected growth.
Developed Countries
include the richer countries of North America; Western Europe; Japan; Australia; and New Zealand; populations in these countries are expected to decline significantly over the next century.
Fecundity
the physical ability to reproduce.
Fertility
the actual number of offspring produced through sexual reproduction; usually described in terms of number of offspring of females.
Crude Birth Rate
the number of births in a year per thousand persons. (This is crude because it is not adjusted for certain population characteristics.)
Total Fertility Rate
number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life.
Zero population growth
occurs when births plus immigration in a population equal deaths plus emigration.
Crude death/mortality rates
the number of deaths per thousand persons in any given year.
Life Span
the oldest age to which a species is known to survive.
Life Expectancy
the average age that a newborn infant can expect to attain in any given society (i.e.; the average age of death).
Age Structure Diagram
involves grouping male and female individuals of a population into three age categories: pre-reproductive; reproductive; and post-reproductive; age structure diagram indicates whether a population is increasing; decreasing; or remaining constant.

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