Glossary of (p)clinical psych
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- Beck's cognitive triad.
- Beck postulated that a cognitive triad consisted of negative views about the self, the world and the furture. According to Beck this caused depression.
- Assertiveness training
- Assertiveness training provides the tools and experience that will enable a client to become more assertive.
- How does cognitive theory account for abnormality?
- According to the conitive theory, maladaptive cognitions lead to abnormal behavior or disturbed affect.
- Explain the temporal dimensions included in Jung's personal unconcious.
- Jung believed that the personal unconscious consisted of a both retrospective and prospective material. Not to say that one sees the furture but they see what they've done and the steps needed to achieve future goals.
- According to RET, abnormality results from a combination what three events?
- 1) An activating event occurs,
2) individual applies certain beliefs about an event, 3) this leads to their emotional disruption
- Role playing
- Role playing allows a client to practice new behaviors and responses.
- What is the overall goal of cognitive therapy?
- To correct maladaptive cognitions.
- According to Freud how did this unresolved mental state manifest itself?
- Pathological and unconcious behaviors, aswell as dreams.
- Describe Magnifying/ minimizing, according to the cognitive perspective.
- Making too much or too little of something.
EX: "I did well on the exam; must have been good luck."
- Describe behaviorism's approach to clinical psychology.
- Behaviorism involves the application of classical and operant conditioning principles to human abnormalities. This model is based on learning. Behavioralists change maladative behavior through new learning.
- What is the main criticism of the cognitive approach?
- It focuses on the cognitive symptoms instead of targeting the underlying problem.
- What is an ARCHETYPE?
- ARCHETYPESare derived from a the emotional reactions of our ancestors to continually repeating events, such as the rising and setting of the sun, and repeating interpersonal relationships such as mother-child.
- What does BDI stand for?
- The Beck Depression Inventory.
The BDI is used to measure views according to the cognitive triad, as well as to gauge the severity of depression.
- What is the major criticism of behavioral therapy?
- Behavior therapy is most widely criticised for treating symptoms rather than the underlying problem.
- Used to manage bipolar disorder.
Function by inhibiting norepinephrine and serotonin based on the theory that mania results from excessive monoamines.
Common type: Lithium.
- What is the goal of analytical therapy?
- The Analytical therapist helps the individual use unconcious info to become more aware and closer to their full potential.
- A defense mechanism used by someone shifting their unacceptable feelings or actions to a less threatening reciepient. Ex: You have a really bad day at work, and you are almost ready to tell your boss off. Instead you come home and get into a fight with your wife, because telling her off will not get you fired.
- Describe dichotomous thinking, according to the cognitive perspective.
- Black and white thinking.
EX: "If I don't get a perfect score on the GRE I will never become a successful career woman."
- Aversion therapy
- Aversion therapy applies operant conditioning principles of negative reinforcement in order to increase anxiety surrounding an inappropriate source of arousal. Thus negative arousal is created where there was originally none.
Most commonly used to treat fetishes.
- What are the combined perspectives that constitute RET?
- Cognitive, Behavioral, and Emotional Theory.
Ellis believed that it was these combined elements that produce behavior.
- What is the collective unconcious?
- The collective unconcious is composed of emotional symbols and themes called ARCHETYPES: which are developed and adopted from the very beginning of mankind.
- Describe PERSONALIZING, according to the cognitive perspective.
- Inappropriately taking responsibility for something.
EX: "If I had only tried harder we wouldn't have lost."
- Describe Behavior Therapy.
- Behavior Therapy is usually SHORT-TERM and DIRECTED.
Thoughts and feelings are not discussed. The therapist uses specific counter-conditioning techniques to facilitate the client's acquisition of new responses.
- What is Psychopharmacology?
- Not really a school of thought, but rather the use of medication to treat mental illness.
- Describe the pleasure principle or primary process?
- This involves one's tendency to seek out pleasurable and gratifying things, and to avoid unpleasant or painful things.
- What is the goal of Rational Emotive therapy?
- To facilitate the patient in the replacement of self-defeating beliefs by more rational ones.
- Who were the originators of the behavioral theory?
- BF Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, & Joseph Wolpe.
- What is the main focus of the cognitive theory?
- The cognitive theory is concerned primarily with CONCIOUS THOUGHT PATTERNS(as opposed to emotions or behaviors). Beck argued that thoughts determine feelings and behaviors. Thus, it is the way in which a person INTERPRETS experience that is important.
- A defense mechanism involving the CLINICIAN's transfer of their unconcious feelings or wishes (ie about ppl in their lives) onto the PATIENT.
- Who was the originator of the RATIONAL EMOTIVE Theory (RET)?
- Albert Ellis
- What is the overall goal of behavioral therapy?
- To change behavior in a more desirable and or adaptive direction.
- Describe OVERGENERALIZATION, according to the cognitive perspective.
- Mistaking isolated incidents for the norm.
Ex: I can't make this relationship work. I will be a lonely spinster forever!"
- What are Antabuse Drugs?
- These are drugs used to change the metabolism of alcohol resulting in severe nausea and vomiting when taken in combination with alchol. They are used to counter alcoholism.
- Describe arbitrary inferencing, according to the cognitive perspective.
- Arbitrary inferencing involves the drawing of conclusions without solid evidence.
"She did not call me back, so she must hate me."
- How does the Rogerian therapist provide Unconditional Positive Regard?
- The Rogerian therapist provides Unconditional Positive Regard by creating a safe environment, where the patient can trust the therapist. The therapist maintains positive feelings for the client no matter what choices, feelings or insights the patient expresses.
- According to psychpharmacology what is the cause of mental illness?
- Abnormality is caused in part by biological factors, to which drugs are targeted.
- The PERSONA archetype?
- Persona (Latin for "mask")represents the socially acceptable facade with which we present ourselves to others. It is idealized by each individual's own thoughts about how the idealized person should appear.
- Antipsychotics were the first drugs used in the treatment of mental illness.
Used to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Function: block dopamine receptors and inhibit dopamine production.
Common types: Clorpromazine (Thorazine)and halperidol (Hadol).
- Radical Behavioralism?
- Radical Behavioralism is associated with Skinner's operant ideas that behavior is related only to its consequences.
- How is pharmaceutical therapy effective in the treatment of mental illness.
- Drugs do not cure mental illness. Drugs allievate symptoms so that a mental ill individual can better function within their environment. Medicine is used alone, aswell as in addition to therapy.
- The reality principle/ or secondary process?
- This involves mediation by the ego, delaying gratification to the id.
- Describe cognitive therapy.
- Cognitions use direct therapy that exposes the client's maladaptive thought patterns, and helps them to restructure thought and reasoning patterns. This is typically short-term and focuses on tangible evidence, such as what the client says and does.
- Which abnormal behaviors are most successfully treated by Behavioral Therapy?
- Phobias,fetishes, OCD, sexual problems, and childhood disorders (bed-wetting).
- Who was the originator of the cognitive theory?
- Aaron Beck
- A defense mechanism involving the performance of ritualistic activities in order to relieve anxiety about unconscious drives.
- What types of maladaptive cognitions are the focus of cognitive theory?
- 1) Arbitrary inference
5) Dichotomous thinking
- According to Rogerian theory, the therapist should provide what three things?
- 1) Empathy
2) Unconditional positive regard
- What are these drugs doing, in the physiological sense?
- Pharmaceuticals are suppose to effecthe neurotransmitters in your brain. Treatments are primarily targeted at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, all of which are monoamines.
- A defense mechanism used when instead of feeling something that is harmful, they unconciously believe that it is another person they know that feels this way.
Ex: I hate her unconciously, but instead of being conciously aware of this hate for her, I believe that she actually hates me.
- Systematic Desensitization
- Systematic Desensitization was originated by J Wolpe.
Involves the application of classical conditioning to relieve anxiety. The client is repeatedly exposed to the anxiety-producing stimulus in a relaxing situation. The presentation intensity will incrementally increase overtime. (ie. the patient is first asked to imagine a snake and 15 sessions later holds a snake)
- How did Jung view the HERO and DEMON archetypes?
- The HERO archetype describes the strong and good force that does battle with the enemy, in order to rescue another from harm. The opposite of the HERO is the DEMON which embodies cruelty and evil.
- According to Jung what did the ANIMUS and ANIMA represent?
- ANIMUS- the male element of a woman, which implies that each female has a masculine side, and a corresponding innate understanding of what it means to be male.
ANIMA- the female element of a man, which implies that each male has a feminine side, and a corresponding innate understanding of what it means to be female.
- The mother archetype?
- According to Jung the mother archetype embodies generativity and fertility, and is akin to the "mother-figure." However, the mother figure can be good or evil or both, as in reality.
- Modeling applies social learning principles and exposes the client to more adaptive behaviors.
- How did Jung differ from Freud in his view of the LIBIDO?
- According to Jung the LIBIDO refers to ones general psychic energy, and is not purely sexual in nature as Freud had argued.
- What are sedatives used to treat?
- Sedatives are used to reduce anxiety or induce sleep. They are highly addictive.
- Describe the Jungian approach to therapy.
- The Jungian approach to therapy is psychodynamic because unconcious elements are addressed. The therapist helps the patient to explore the unconscious via the examination of dreams, artistry, and personal symbols. According to analytical theory these are the venues from which the unconcious expresses itself.
- How does the Rogerian therapist provide EMPATHY?
- The Rogerian therapist provides EMPATHY by attempting to appreciate, rather than simply observing, the client's world. The therapist must try to stand in the client's shoes.
- Describe the C-CT approach to Therapy.
- C-CT is completely directed by the client. The client decides how often to meet and what will be discussed. The therapist has a NON-DIRECTIVE role, providing only an atmosphere conducive to the patients self-exploration.
- According to Jung what did the PERSONA and the SHADOW represent?
- These two opposing archetypes represent the differences between our outward appearance and our inner self.
- Describe Rogerian or person-centered therapy.
- Client/or person-centered therapy is known for it's humanistic approach. It has a very optimistic view of human nature, as it is believed that humans have an actualizing tendency which directs them out of conflict, toward their full potential. One is most cabaple of achieving actualization within an enviroment that fosters growth.
- How does the Rogerian therapist provide Genuineness/congruence?
- Similar to client congruence, the feelings and experiences of the therapist should match.
Therapists do not maintain a profession position but rather talk and interact with their patient in a candid manner.
- Hoes does C-CT account for abnormalities?
- According to C-CT, people who LACK CONGRUENCE between their real selves and their conscious self-concept develop psychological tension. Inconcongruence occurs when feelings or experiences are inconsistent with the acknowledged concept of self. Ex: A self-concept of perfection will be rattled by an experienced failure.
- A defense mechanism used to prevent threatening information into concious awareness.
- Who was the originator of CLIENT-CENTERED(C-CT) therapy?
- Carl Rogers
- Neobehavioralism uses Pavlov's classical counter-conditioning principles to create new responses to stimuli.
- How does ANALYTICAL theory (JUNG) account for abnormality?
- Psychopathology is an indication that something is wrong with the makeup of one's psyche. It provides CLUS about how one can become more aware.
- What are the most commonly referred to Archetypes theorized by Jung?
- 1) Persona & Shadow
2) Animus & Anima
4) Hero & Demon
- The SHADOW archetype?
- According to Jung, the shadow archetype is the dark or unacceptable side of a person, including shameful desires and motives a person would rather not admit to.
- According Rogers, what constitutes evidence of a patient's growth?
- Evidence of growth includes:
1) a congruent self-concept
2) positive self-regard
3) an internal locus-of-evaluation
4) a willingness to experience.
- Catharsis or aberaction?
- The discharge of repressed emotions through free association.
- What is the ultimate goal of Rogerian therapy?
- The goal of C-CT is to provide a TRUSTING atmosphere conducive to the clients self-directed growth, and awareness of one's own potential.
- What are the "big five" personality traits?
- O-Openess to experience
- FLOODING or IMLOSIVE therapy
- Applies classical conditioning in order to relieve anxiety. The client is repeatedly exposed to an anxiety-producing stimulus so that overexposure leads to a lesser anxiety.
- What are three common types of antidepressants?
- 1)Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
2)Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
3)Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
- Shaping applies operant conditioning principles to change behavior. The client is reinforced for those behaviors closest to the desired outcome.
- Describe fixation.
- Fixation refers to people who are stuck at a particular stage of Freud's theory of psychosexual development.
- A defense mechanism used to justify behavior or feelings that would otherwise cause the individual to feel guilty.
ex: I faked sick today and did not fulfill my work commitments. Rationalization: But I've been working really hard lately and a day off will probably improve my overall performance.
- A defense mechanism that channels unacceptable drives into more positive venues.
Ex: A man unconciously wants to cut peoples bodies into pieces, but instead he gets a job working as a butcher.
- Additional info about conflicts...
- The individual is motivated by drive reduction. Initially Freud argued that the greatest conflict existed between the libido & the ego. Later he revised this and argued that the true conflict was between Eros and Thanatos.
- What part of the personality contains moral principles and values from society?
- According to Freud what was Superego?
- The part of the mind that motivates a person to confirm to societal norms. A childs superego will evolve through parental teaching of rules and morals.
- List three problems with Freud's ideas.
- 1. Weak evidence. 2. Difficult to scientifically test. 3. Modern sexual values have not decreased psychological problems. 4. Modern studies of consciousness do not support many of his ideas.
- What does the psychoanalytic theory view as central to human nature?
Conflict between different drives (particularly conscious and unconscious) which compete for expression.
- What were the four types of personality founded by Adler?
- 1) Ruling-dominant type.
2) Get learning type.
3) Avoiding type.
4) Socially useful type.
- According to Adler, how does a person come to realize oneself?
- Adler termed this process of self relization as "becoming." This process is motivated by social needs and feelings of inferiority.
- According to Freud what was Thanatos?
- Thanatos was the death instinct and motivated self-destructive behavior.
- What did Freud refer to as the "royal road to the unconcious."
Freud viewed dreams as a safe outlet in which individuals fulfilled or expressed otherwise harmful acts or thoughts.
- The quest for expression?
- According to the psychoanalytic theory, one's Id and Superego are in constant competition for expression and acknowledgement. How well one's ego mediates between the two will determine one's state of mental health.
- According to Adler, what is an unhealthy (abnormal) individual?
- A person with the "yes but" mentality. They are too low, to strive towards improvement.
If they do strive toward a goal it is self-serving. They do not work towards the greater good.
- What were the three components which constitued Freuds Structural Model of mental life?
- 1) Ego
- According to Freud, which part of the personality represents organized, rational, and conscious decision making?
- Freud's abnormal theory?
- Freud dealt with the neurotic and the hysterical. Pathology was a result of repressed drives and conflicts, which then manifested themselves in these abnormal behaviors.
- What was the COLLECTIVE unconscious, according to Jung?
- Consists of the dynamics of the psyche passed down through generations. This unconcious is common to all individuals.Also involves archtypes.
- What were the different types of defense mechanisms proposed by psychoanalysts?
- 1) Repression/denial
5) Reaction formation
- Who originated the Analytical Theory?
- Carl Jung
- What is clinical psychology?
- Clinical Psychology is the study of the theory, assessment, and treatment of mental and emotional disorders.
- Describe what ego defense mechanisms are and name an example.
- These are strategies that the ego uses to protect itself from the id. Repression is an example.
- According to Freud what was Eros?
- The life instinct that included both sex and love.
- What is the name for the theorists who took Freud's ideas in new directions?
- The Neofreudians
- According to Freud what was Id?
- The id was the part of the mind that contains the unconcious biological drives and wishes. At birth, mental life is completly driven by the Id and it's biological drives, including sex, agression etc.
- A defense mechanism whereby one imitates a central figure in one's life, such as a parental figure.
- The goal of psychanalysis?
- To ease an individual's unconcious pressures by brings thoughts and feelings to a concious level.
- What is the difference between introverts and extroverts?
- Extroverts prefer lots of social interaction. Introverts prefer less social interaction.
- What is the theory behind Antidepressants?
- Antidepressants are used to decrease depressive symptoms. It is believed that depression is caused by abnormally low levels of monoamines. Thus antidepressants serve to increase the production and transmission of various monoamines.
- Goal of Adlerian therapy?
- To reduce one's inferiority complex, and to shift one's focus so that there is a greater concern and motivation to facilitate the greater good.
- Who was a key figure in the development of psychoanalytic theory?
- Sigmund Freud
- List Freud's five psychosexual stages.
- Screen Memory?
- These are memories had by individuals, which are posited representations of important childhood experiences.
- How is Adlerian/Individual therapy similar to psychoanalytic therapy?
- Adlerian therapy also focuses on the unconcious.
In contrast, the primary focus is on the individual's lifestyle and life choices. A clinician will direct the patient to focus on one's motivations, perceptions, goals and resources.
- According to Freud what was Ego?
- The ego is the part of the mind that mediates between the environment and the pressures of the id and superego.
- Reaction Formation?
- A defense mechanism which exchanges a harmful feeling into a safer one. EX: You unconsciously hate someone but you transform this into intense care and concern for this person's well being.
- Def'n free association?
- Involves the patient's discussion of thoughts and feelings without guidance from the clinician.
- Defense Mechanisms?
- Defense Mechanisms are used by the ego to ward off or weaken the impact of unconcious conflict or environmental forces.
- What parts of the personality do the pleasure principle, the reality principle, and the perfection principle describe?
- Id: pleasure principle,
Ego: reality principle, Superego: perfection principle
- Def'n transference?
- Freud argued that the patient should open up to him as if he were a family member, and would thus act as a channel for expressing repressed emotion towards them.
Ex: Unconciously, I never really felt as though I had a consistent, father figure. During my psychoanalytic sessions with Freud, I begin to feel a sense of attachment to him. One day in therapy I say "You would make a really nice dad." Freud would want to examine the meaning behind this statement.
- How did Jung organize the psyche/ mind?
- The psych is composed of both conscious and unconscious levels. But there are two distinct levels of unconscious: 1)personal unconscious; 2)collective unconcious.
- According to Freud, what was the Libido?
- Sexual forces which motivate individuals to act in a sexual manner.
- Describe Adler's socially useful personality type?
- This personality type characterized what Adler viewed to be the healthy individual. They are high on both energy levels as well as social consciousness, contributing to the greater good.
- Describe Adler's ruling-dominant personality type?
- High in activity, but exhibit low levels of societal contribution. Tend to be domineering.
- What was the personal unconscious, according to Jung?
- Consists of information gathered through individual experiences. These include all info that is not CURRENTLY part of the concious awareness. However, some parts of the personal unconscious can be experessed at the conscious level. Thus, it contains both info that is simply not relevent to your present situation aswell as that which is being activily repressed and cannot be accessed by the conscious.
- What is the purpose of Electroconvulsive shock therapy?
- ECT is used to treat the most severely depressed patients. This treatment involves delivering electrical currents to the brain and induces convulsions.
- What two components did Freud use in his analyses of dreams?
- 1) manifest content: the actual content of the dream which provided information useful in decifering the 2) latent content: the unconcious desires the unconscious was trying to express.
- Describe Adler's get learning personality type?
- This person is low in both energy and levels of societal concientiousness. These people can be described as dependent.
- According to Adler, when do feelings of inferiority arise?
- Feelings of inferiority arise when the individual feels asthough one's current self is less than ones potential ideal self.
- What part of the Id is the source of aggessive or destructive thoughts?
- Describe Adler's avoiding personality type?
- Similar to the get learning type they are low on both energy and societal contributions. However, the avoidant personality type is introverted and withdrawn.
- How/Why did Jung break from Freud?
- Jung believed that Freud placed to much emphasis on the role of the libido. Instead, Jung argued that the psych was more focused toward life and awarenss.
- What part of personality is unconscious and contains instincts for pleasure or aggression?
- What are surface traits?
- Surface traits can be easily distinguished from observable behaviors.
- Alfred Adler broke with Freud and generated what theory?
- Adler developed the Individual or Adlerian theory, which describes people as creative,social and whole. This more positive approach contrasts with Freuds more derogatory approach.
- According to Adler, what constitutes a healthy individual.
- A healthy individual: not thwarted by feelings of inferiority, and partakes in a quest for achieving ideal self. According to Adler, this individual has "will power." A healthy individual will additionally strive to achieve goals that benefit the whole of society.
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