Glossary of ! Psychology- Prologue
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- the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
- an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
- a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
- the science of behavior and mental processes
- nature-nurture issue
- the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
- natural selection
- the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
- basic research
- pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
- applied research
- scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
- clinical psychology
- a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
- a brance of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
- Wilhelm Wundt
- Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
- Edward Bradford Titchener
- Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements.
- William James
- Developed pragmatism, fuctionalism, took questions from students...
- Mary Whiton Calkins
- Refused a Ph.D, became the president of the American Psychological Association.
- Margaret Floy Washburn
- First woman to receive a psychology Ph.D, she synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind
- John B. Watson
- Worked with Rosalie Rayner, championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditional responses on "Little Albert."
- B.F. Skinner
- A leading "behaviorist," who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.
- Charles Darwin
- Argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.
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