Glossary of zTest #2 Chapter 5
- Social status is a
- The amount of honor a nd prestige a person receives from others in the community;also, the position one occupies in the stratification system.
- An ascribed status is
- a social position assigned to a person on the basis of a characteristic over which he or she has no control, such as age, sex, or race.
- An achieved status
- A social position, such as teacher, graduate, or wife, obtained through one's own efforts.
- A master status is
- a particular status in one's status set that takes priority over the others.
- A social role is
- any given status in your status set. They are dynamic and they are a set of expectations and behavior associated with it in a give group and society.
- Role conflict occurs
- when a situation that exists when differing expectations are associated with the same role.
- Social groups are important in the lives of
- humans as they are social animals. Social groups are a fundamental part of our existence. Most social groups involve interaction, a sense of belonging or membership, shared interests and values, and some type of structure.
- Social interaction is a characteristic of a(n)
- Primary groups and secondary groups are types of
- social groups.
- The major difference between primary and secondary groups is in their
- level of interaction. Primary groups involve intimate face-t-face association and interaction and their members have a sense of "we-ness" involving mutual indentification and shared feelings. A secondary group is a group whose members interact in an impersonal manner, have few emotional ties, and come together for a specific practical purpose.
- In-groups and out-groups differ from each other in
- that an in-group is a social group they feel they belong with and share the same mindset with whereas an out-group they feel they don't belong and they do not share a consciousness of mind - and most importantly do not feel identified with the group.
- In-groups tend to see out-groups
- as a threat and this intensifies group cohesion.
- Peer groups are groups of people who are usually
- an informa primary group of people who share a ismilar or equal status and who are usually of roughly the same age.
- A unique factor in peer groups is
- Reference groups are
- groups with which people identify psychologically and to which they refer in evaluating themselves and their behavior.
- Relative deprivation occurs when someone owns less than members of his or her
- reference group. They feel deprived, not because of objective conditions, but because of comparison to a reference group.
- Compared to groups of three people, groups of two people
- have a special responsibility to interact - if one person withdraws, the group no longer exists. In a group of three, if one person drops out there is still a dyad.
- As the size of groups increases, all but which of the following is true?
- 1. As size increases so does the division of labor.
2. Interactions are dramatically effected.
3. It's structure becomes more rigid and formal.
4. The need for a more formal type of leadership increases.
5. Communication patterns change.
6. Cohesion decreases.
- A cohesive group will
- pg. 136 Look up some more.
1. Reduce the anxieties of group members.
2. Leads to greater cooperation.
3. People are more loyal.
4. Overall performance improves.
- A social organization refers to a(n)
- the way society is organized:
1. It's norms
5. Communication patterns
6. Social institutions and the like.
- In a formal organization
- is a large social group diliberately constructed and organized to achieve some specific and clearly stated goals.
- The school you attend is a ___________________________ organization
- formal organization...... so are industrial corporations, professional sports, country clubs, trade unions, schools, churches, prisons, hospitals, and government agencies.
- The process by which procedures become established is called
- Pg. 138-139
- Bureaucracies are characterized by
- their organization structure that directs and coordinats the efforts of the people involved in various organizational tasks. It's structure is like a pyramid.
- An ideal bureaucracy is
- a model of hypothetical pure form of an existing entity. It is not perfect - it is ideal.
- Merit selection ____________________________ is found in bureaucracies.
- P. 143
organizations select personnel on the basis of merit, using standardized criteria such as civil service examinations or educational training rather than friendship or political or family connection.
- Robert Merton believed that the rigidity, conformity, and discipline required in a bureaucracy lead to
- trained incapacity, which occurs when the demands of discipline, rigidity, conformity, and adherence to rules render people unable to perceive the end for which the rules were developed.
- Hiring and promotion in bureaucracies are
- based on a rigid set of formal qualifications - five year's experience or a college degree, fro example - rather than skill or performance.
- We often get the runaround in bureaucracies when we ask a question because
- if a problem does not clearly fall within a department's area of responsibility, or if it involves several departments, the runaround is likely to begin.
- Voluntary associations are usually __________________________ organizations.
Members in any given associatioin usualy come from similar socioeconomic levels. Most people join these groups because they share their goals and values and voluntarily choose to support them.
- T F Status is the position an individual has in society.
- T F Roles are clearly prescribed rules for behavior.
- T F Groups are organizations with clearly stated goals.
- T F
A categorical group, by definition, interacts.
- T F Best friends form primary groups.
- T F The family is a primary group.
- T F Primary groups have members who are emotionally attached to one another.
- T F Secondary groups are impersonal, but primary groups can form within them.
- T F Peer groups are the opposite of reference groups.
- T F Reference groups give us an important source of information about ourselves.
- T F In spite of the saying “Two is company and three is a crowd,” dyads are less stable than triads.
- T F Increasing the size of a group strengthens group cohesiveness.
- T F Formal organizations always have goals.
T F 14. A bureaucracy is an organization in chaos, without hierarchy, rules, or goals.
T F 15. Bureaucracies are always inefficient and dehumanizing.
- T F
A bureaucracy is an organization in chaos, without hierarchy, rules, or goals.
- T F
Bureaucracies are always inefficient and dehumanizing.
- Describe the primary groups of which you are a member. How does each of these groups influence your life?
- Describe the secondary groups of which you are a member. How does each of these groups influence your life? How does the influence of these groups differ from those of your primary group relationships?
- Which groups are your out-groups? How do you stereotype these groups? How do these groups influence your life?
- Select the social institution that has been most important in shaping your life. How has this institution, apart from any primary or secondary group to which you belong, influenced your life? In other words, discuss the effect of the norms and positions
- Analyze a status you hold and its associated role expectations. Which role expectations are functional
and which are not? Which expectations do you meet and which do you ignore? Could you improve role performance by changing expectations?
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