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Glossary of w0r1d h!$t0ry

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Treaty of Versailles
at the end of WWI when the winning countries(u.s., france, england, serbia, italy) met at the Versailles Palace to discuss what to do with the losers (germany, austria-hungary, ottoman empire)
Nicholas and Alexandra
-nicholas was one of the romanovs who was the leader of russia in 1896 and he married alexandra a german princess
-they had 4 girls and one son:alexis, who had hemophilia
-they hired rasputin, who was mad sketch but he helped alexis

tsar
the leader of russia (nicholas)
alexis
the son of nicholas and alexandra
had hemophilia
was in line for the throne until nicholas abdicated for him

hemophilia
alexis had it....a disease where your blood takes a long time to clot, so its hard for you to stop bleeding/you could bleed to death really easily
abdication
-when a leader voluntarily gives up their position
-what nicholas did for himself and alexis during the russian revolution
bourgeoisie
what Karl Marx and Frederick Engels called the rich in their book "the Communist Manifesto"
proletariat
what Karl Marx and Frederick Engels called the poor in their book "the Communist Manifesto"
All Quiet On the Western Front
a book/movie about WWI with a strong anti-war message
Ataturk
-means "father turk"-another name for Mustapha Kemel
-helped turkey
-major accomplishments included
~women could vote/get jobs
~free education
~ppl allowed to change their religion
~men didnt have to wear a fez/women didnt have to wear a head scarf
~transformed turkey into a secular state
~completely modernized tukey
-downsides:
~armenian genocide!!
~wanted turks to contain only turks












Armenian Genocide
-reallly bad thing that happened in turkey
-why?
~wanted turkey to contain only turks
~turks=muslim/armenians=christian
~turkey vs. armenians in WWI-> considered traitors bc they supported russia instead of turkey
-modern day-> country called armenia
-turkish govt denied it ever happend (say the deaths were "accidental")
-"genocide"=illegal word in turkey
-many people have never heard of this event







flu pandemic
-1918-1919
-quickly spread, worldwide flu pandemic while thomas woodrow wilson was president
Emily Davison
some chick who jumped in front of the kings horse at a derby and died 4 days later... for suffrage publicity
suffrage
the right to vote (womens suffrage=1920)
pankhurst family
important/influential family in the british suffragette movement
stalin
-joseph stalin=originally from georgia (real last name=djugoshvili)
-leader of ussr
-changed name bc "stal" means steel and "stalin" means man of steel
-wanted to improve ussr, build railroads, cities, dam, etc.
-caused the ukraine famine on purpose in order to make money to improve the rest of the ussr



ukrainian famine
-stalin made money selling grain from ukraine to improve the rest of the ussr (ukraine=bread basket of ussr)
-govt took all grain form collective farm and left none for the ukrainians
-about 15million ppl died and ukraine considers the event to be a man made famine/genocide
-russian govt denies it
-stalin said to make an omelette u need to break a few eggs
-he did this to strengthen russia bc he was afraid of losing to germany like in WWI




steel horses
(ukrainian famine) tractors that worked the fields and in return "earned" their share of the community grain, which went to the govt
holodomor
"death by hunger"-another name for the ukrainian famine
five year plan
stalin's plan to make the soviet union into an industrial country in 5 years by maximizing production of capital goods (led to the ukrainian famine)
black hand society
-serbian terrorist group that wanted to cause trouble and wanted all serbians to live in serbia (some lived in austria hungary)
-assassinated archduke francis ferdinand (heir to the austrian throne) in sarajevo, bosnia
archduke francis ferdinand
-heir to the austrian throne until he was assassinated by gavrilo princeps of the black hand society
gavrilo princeps
-member of the black hand society
-serbian terrorist who assassinated archduke francis ferdinand, heir to the austrian throne
schlieffen plan
germany's plan to beat france in 6 weeks and then go back and beat russia
no man's land/trench warfare
no man's land=the area between the trenches that was basically bare, nothing grows there, people go back and forth
trench warfare=when two opposing sides get out of their trenches, attack, defend, counterattack, and then retreat back to their own trenches
reparations
when germany had to pay france and england lots of money to pay for damages///if they didnt have enough money, they had to pay with livestock, coal, etc
world war I (WWI)
-1914-1918
-u.s., france, england, russia, serbia and italy VS. austria-hungary, germany and ottoman empire
-called a world war bc even though it was mainly european countries, there was fighting going on all over the world bc of colonies

alexander kerensky
-new head of govt after the romanov dynasty was finished
-promised free elections
-decided to continue the war

rasputin
-faith healer who worked for nicholas and alexandra
-could temporarily cure alexis of his hemophilia
-staret=member of the church who heals people
-became the family doctor
-he was way scandalous, drank a lot, gambled, etc
-nicholas friends assassinated him, but they had to poison, shoot, and drown him in a river before he died...creepy




lenin
-real name vladimir ulyanov
-was in power from 1917-1924
-kicked out kerensky
-mummified in lenin's tomb (in moscow)
-first communist dictator in the world





anastasia
-one of the daughters of alexandra and nicholas
-entire romanov family was shot in 1918, and anastasia is rumored to have escaped
-ALSO A FRICKIN GOOD MOVIE :)

rhineland
-area to the west of the rhine river that had to be demilitarized
-one of the punishments given to germany bc they lost the war
-germans could only live there if they didnt have military equipment
-it was like a buffer between germany and other countries


karl marx
-wrote a book with frederick engels called "the communist manifesto"
-said that history is a series of class struggles:
~rich vs. poor
~factory owners vs. working class
~bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
-industrial revolution brought misery, poverty, and bad living/working conditions for the poor
-only solution= violent revolt
-believed a temporary dictatorship(educated people) would run things for the poor at first and then the dictatorship would fade away and there would be a classless society
-he was a utopian thinker







bolsheviks
another name for people who were part of the RSDP (russian social democratic party)=communist party
reds vs. whites
-reds=bolsheviks
-whites=anti-bolshevik(bourgeoisie)
-reds won against overwhelming odds bc they had an organized army and they were well disciplined
-whites were very unorganized, not united, and had lots of political differences


cheka
-secret police for the bolsheviks
-used terror
treaty of brest-litovsk
treaty between germany and russia
that marked russias exit from WWI
USSR
-union of soviet socialist republics (soviet union)
-15 republics within it, biggest of which was russia
mao zedong
-leader of the communist movement
-started the Great Leap Forward
Chiang Kai Schek
-leader of the nationalist party
-had problems;
~civil war against Mao
~needed $$ for modernization
~taxes-people didnt like that
~lots of poverty in china
-when mao won the civil war, he escaped to taiwan





Madame Chiang Kai Schek
-wife of Chiang Kai Schek
-educated in america
-really diplomatic, friends with a lot people in high places

General Yuan Shikai
-in 1911 he became the first president of china, after the emperor was kicked out bc of revolution
-tried to revive confucian rituals and found a new imperial dynasty but he had a lot of conflict with the nationalist party
-when he died, china became a semianarchy, central govt disappeared, and military warlords gained power

the Long March
-when the nationalists forced the commies out of hiding and made them go on a long trek
-only 10,000 out of 90,000 survived the journey
covenant/promised land
-abraham had a covenant(deal) with god
-said that if he and his followers worshipped god, theyd be given protection and land (isreal=promised land)
pogrom
a govt supported violent attack on a certain group that includes killing, destruction of home/land/religious centers
balfour declaration
declared that palestine was the national homeland of jews, even though it was mainly inhabited by muslim palestinians
captain dreyfus
jewish officer in the french army who was accused of selling military secrets just bc he was jewish
theodor herzl
an austrian-jewish journalist who wrote "The Jewish State" in 1895 while covering the Dreyfus case
nationalist party
-anti-communist party
-led by chiang kai schek
salt march
-led by gandhi
-200 mile walk to the ocean to protest the salt tax
-everyone picked up their own chunks of salt

harijan
-"children of god"
-another name for the poor
-gandhi was very concerned about them

amritsar
-a large group of peaceful, unarmed protestors gathered there
-british soldiers blocked the opening of the garden they were in and shot almost everyone
-"to teach a lesson" but it was basically for no reason

mahatma
-"great soul" (of india)
-what people called gandhi
pass books in south africa
anybody who wasnt white had to carry one, and it said what race/class they were
russian revolutions, 1917
-first one: tsar was replaced
-second one:communist party was instated
triple alliance
military alliance between austria-hungary, germany and italy
triple entente
alliance between france russia and britain
war guilt clause
-forced germany to say that they started WWI
-made them pay reparations
civil disobedience
-what gandhi taught
-nonviolent resistance, etc
-peaceful or whatever

Triumph of the Will
the video of Hitlers famous speech
lebensraum
-living space
-one of hitlers ideas, to create more space for the growing german population
elie wiesel/auschwitz
in the book 'night' by elie wiesel, he talks about how he lived through auschwitz with his father
nazi
-nationale arbeiter zocialist partei
-a south german rightist party led by hitler
nuremberg laws
-laws that separated german jews from german society (prevented citizenship, marriage, etc.)
-announced at a rally in nuremberg
-meant to make german jews feel like outsiders so they would leave

poisonous mushroom
an anti-jewish children's book
beer hall putsch
an armed uprising (against the govt) in munich, led by hitler... caused him to get arrested
kristallnacht
-"night of shattered glass"
-started a violent era with a nazi rampage against jews
-burned synagogues, killed jews, concentration camps, etc

anti-semitism
hatred towards jews
~~Mein Kampf~~
-the book Hitler wrote while in prison
-explained all the psychological reasons behind his political strategies
-no one listened to what was in it bc most people thought he was a joke
-"my struggle"


~~satyagraha
-"hold fast to the truth"
-the name of gandhi's movement
appeasement
-hitler kept demanding things and all the other countries were afraid of him so they gave him whatever he wanted and thought he would be satisfied but UM DUHH he wasnt. so he just kept asking more stuff. fools
munich conference
-british, french, germans and italians all met and basically agreed to all of hitlers demands
-showed him they were weak
-not exactly a smart move



battle of stalingrad
a major industrial center that germany tried to capture but couldnt because the soviet union was too strong
december 7, 1941
japanese, to head off any attacks from the u.s., bombed pearl harbor
island hopping
americans couldnt take over every island the japanese held, so they they only took over certain ones
barefoot gen
-creepy anime movie that was about hiroshima
-way disturbing, def made you feel sympathetic
hiroshima
-america dropped the first atomic bomb in history on the city of hiroshima
-verrrrry controversial
kamikaze
-japanese people who would drive suicide planes and crash them on purpose to sacrifice themselves in order to take out american ships or whatever
harry truman
-the u.s. president who decided to drop the bombs on hiroshima/nagasaki
nagasaki
america dropped the second atomic bomb on the city of nagasaki just days after hiroshima
holocaust
when hitler killed/put many jews into concentration camps
sun yat sen
-pioneer of nationalism in china
-helped overthrow the qing dynasty
schindler's list
movie about a nazi named schindler who saved many jews by employing them to work in his factory
swastika
the symbol of the nazis
einzatsgruppen
SS nazi forces responsible for mass killings
anschluss
when austria was annexed into germany
nazi-soviet pact
-when nazis and soviets made a pact to split poland
manchukuo
a puppet state in manchuria

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