Glossary of system path neuro

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Created by billychoi85

Often due to a tear in the middle meningeal artery
above the dura
Epidural hematoma
Blunt trauma with tearing of bridging veins
Subdural hematoma
Bruise of the cortical surface with hemorrhagic necrosis
coup vs contracoup
Permanent injury leading to fibrosis; cerebral edema

Transient loss of consciousness after non-penetrating blunt trauma

Obstruction to the flow of CSF leads to dilation of ventricles by accumulated CSF.
Obstruction within ventricle: non-communicating

Enlarged ventricle due to

represent abnormal waves of depolarization in various brain regions
Developmental arterial defects occurring at branch points

Berry aneurysm
Ballooning of weakened arterial wall under the influence of intravascular pressure

Parkinson disease
AML (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
Huntington disease
Alzheimer disease

degenerative disorders
Destruction of dopaminergic cells in Substantia Nigra (extrapyramidal system to basal ganglia)
Muscular cogwheel rigidity
Mask-like face
tremor at rest

Parkinson\'s Disease
Chronic, multi-focal white matter inflammation, demyelination, and scarring.
Multiple sclerosis
Degenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons (ventral horn, brainstem motor nuclei, UMN of cerebral cortex)
Progressive weakness and wasting of extremities and eventually respiratory muscles

ALS Lou Gehrig’s Disease
Foot drop, weakness in leg, feet or ankles
Hand weakness / diminished control
Slurred speech or trouble swallowing
Upper extremity muscle cramps and twitching, also in tongue
Muscles become weaker until paralyzed… eventually affecting che

ALS Lou Gehrig’s Disease
Autosomal dominant (chromosome 4)
Abnormal gene product throughout body and nervous system
Destruction and atrophy of caudate nucleus (basal ganglia) resulting in: (usually > age 40)

Huntington Disease
Progressive degenerative disease leading to cerebral atrophy
neuritic plaques:
amyloid (Aß) protein
neurofibrillary tangles:
abnormally phosphorylated tau protein
Granulovacuolar degeneration

Alzheimers Disease
Chronic, multi-focal white matter inflammation, demyelination, and scarring
Primary disorder within myelin-producing oligodendrocyte cells
Plaques deposited everywhere
Schwann cell

Multiple Sclerosis
Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

immune-mediated processes
Progressive symmetric ascending muscle weakness, paralysis, and hyporeflexia +/- sensory or autonomic symptoms
Most common cause of flaccid paralysis

Guillain-Barre GBS
ganglioside-like epitopes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer of some infectious agents cross-react with ganglioside surface molecules of peripheral nerves

Guillain-Barre GBS
Auto-antibodies to acetylcholine (ACh) nicotinic postsynaptic receptors at myoneural junction
Reduced number of ACh receptors results in progressively reduced muscle strength with repeated use of the muscle and recovery of muscle strength following a p
Myasthenia Gravis
Muscle weakness
Begins in legs and pelvis; less severe in arms, neck, other areas
Difficulty with motor skills (running, hopping, jumping)
Frequent falls
Progressive difficulty walking
Ability to walk may be lost by age 12

Duchenne Muscular dystrophy
Chronic demyelinating motor-sensory neuropathy with decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Arise from arachnoid
Symptoms relate to space occupying nature (i.e., compression)
20% of all intracranial tumors
Round, firm, well circumscribed


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