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Glossary of system path male reproductive sys

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Created by billychoi85

urine gets blocked anywhere along the path, the ureter can get distended because the urine can’t get into bladder, so the ureter gets dilated, is called =



hydroureter.
this can cause urine to stay in the bladder, setting stage for bladder infection



benign prostate hyperplasia
Usually follow lower urinary tract infections/reflux of infected urine into the prostate o So prostate gets inflamed from infected urine



acute bacterial prostatitis
Suprapubic, perineal discomfort, dysuria, nocturia (wake up at night to urinate), low back pain - Urine usually contains bacteria - Additional factors – prostatic calculi



chronic bacterial prostatitis
pee after prostate massage, and see leukocytes, culture urine to diagnose -



bacterial prostatitis
Adenocarcinoma arising mostly in the peripheral zone of the gland
- Local extension – most commonly to the seminal vesicles and the base of the urinary bladder – ureteral obstruction
- Hematogenous -- spread to the bones, chiefly the axial skele

carcinoma of prostate
if osteoblast in vertebrae stains for acid phosphatase, that means malignancy from



from prostate
-Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) < 4 ng/mL is cut-off between normal and abnormal -Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) of biopsy specimens; if positive in metastatic site, identify prostate as primary used to diagnose

prostate cancer
Grade 1 – tumor is well differentiated, means pathologist could easily tell it’s prostate
Grade 5 – means pathologist has hard time telling it’s prostate, poorly differentiated




Gleason system for prostate cancer
Prostate cancer stage A thru D
A - microscopic
B - macroscopic
C - Extra-capsular
D - metastatic


Dysuria
Pyuria
Fever/chills/malaise
Abdominal pain
Increased frequency of urination



symptoms of cystitis
Acute or chronic inflammation of the testis - often secondary to UTI
Gonorrhea; Mumps ; testicular pain; unilateral gonadal swelling; infertility as a major complication
spread from Tuberculosis
-Syphilis – congenital or acquired






Orchitis
Failure of the testis to descend completely into its normal position within the scrotum, aka shy testis
Untreated – 35 fold increased risk of developing malignant germ cell tumor
Cryptochidism
Tissues from all three germ layers – ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm - Solid, multicystic, enlarge the testis
-
Typically benign





Testicular Teratoma
The most common germ cell tumor of the testis - It is malignant
- Appears associated with alterations in chromosome 12p - Peak incidence in the third and fourth decades




Seminoa
More aggressive than seminomas
testis is completely occupied by tumor
Embryonal Carcinomas
HPV, types 6 and 11
-
Not a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the penis
STD


penile condyloma acuminatum

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