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Glossary of sociology 110

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Education
The social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills and cultural values within a formally organized structure
Social Institutions
Education imports values, beliefs, and knowledge considered essential.
Functionalists
suggest that education contributes to the maintenance of society and provides opportunity for upward social mobility
conflict theorists
Argue that education prepetuates social inequality.
Symbolic interactions
Focus on classroom dynamics and the effect of self concept on grades and aspirations
Manifest functions of education
-socialization of the young
-teaching of academic skills
Latent functions of Education
-child care
-transmission of values
Cultural transmission
passing major portions of societies knowledge from one generation to the next.
The hidden curriculum
-Schools for poor working class students emphasize procedures and note memorization
- Schools for middle class students sress the process involved in getting the right answer
-Schools for affluent students focus on activities in which students express their own ides
-schools for students form elite families work to develop critical thinking skills, applying abstract principle to problem slving.


Durkheims theory
According to durkheim when people live together they come to share common sentiments nd values
Durkheims theory 2
These form a collective conscious that is larger than any individual
- When we experience the collective conscious directly, we can distinguish the world of the profane from the transcend world of the sacred
- we designate certain object as symbolizing the sacred, these are TOTEMS

Rituals
We invent public practices to connect us with the sacred
Criticisms of Durkheim
1) Over emphasizes religions role in maintaining social cohesion when religion often incites social conflict.
2) Ignores the fact that when religion increases social cohesion, it often reinforces social inequality.
Conflict theory perspective
-Marx saw religion as a tool the upper classes used to dominate the lower classes.
- The lower classes were distracted from social change by the promise of happiness through religion
Churches
formal organizations that see themselves and are seen by society as the primary and legitimate religious institutions.
Sects
groups that have broken off form an established church, when a faction questions its legitmacy
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Cults
Religious groups devoted to a specific cause or a leader with charisma
ex=scientology
Social class
consists of a category of people who share similar opportunities, similar economic and vocational positions, similar lifestyles, and similar attitudes and behaviors
Stratification
A society that has several different social classes and permits social mobility
Poverty
Refers to a condition in which people o not have enough money to maintain a standard of living that includes the basic necessities of life.
Between 14 and 45million americans live in poverty, but we do not have an unequivocal way to determining how many poor people there are in the u.s.
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Gesellschaft
(Society) relationships are impersonal and independant
Gmeinschaft
(Community) Relationships are intimate, cooperative,and personal.
Mechanically integrated society
society is one in which a societys collective conscience is to strong and there is great commitment to that collective conscience.
organically integrated society
social solidarity depends on the cooperation of individuals in many different positions who perform specialized tasks.
Bureaucracy
a formal organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity in which every series of actions is functionally related to the purpose of the organization.
Example- Roman catholic church
Religion
is a system of beliefs and practices based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a single moral community.
social group
-a social group consists of a number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain common goals and shared norms
- the individuals interact with one another according to established statuses and roles
social aggregate
-is made of of people who temporarily happen to be in physical proximity to eachother, share little else
- ceases to exist when its members are away form one another.
sex
the physical and biological differences between men and woman
gender
the social,psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based on the previous biological distinctions.
criticisms of poverty index
-when the federal government developed the poverty index, about 1/4 of welfare benefits were in form of goods and services.
- the poverty measure only looks at income, not assets.
- food accounts for a smaller proportion of family expenses today than it did previously.

myths about the poor
- people are poor because they are to lazy to work.
-Most poor people are minorities, and most minorities are poor.
-most of the poor are single mothers with children.

Marx: distribution of wealth
marx believed that peoples lives are centered on how they deal with the material world.
Max Weber
believed that there were three sources of stratification
- economic class
-social status
-political power
economic classes arise out of unequal distribution of economic power.



institutional racism
systematic white domination of people of color embedded and operating in corporations, universities, legal systems and other social collectives.
female dominated jobs
kindergarten teachers, receptionists, child care workers ,dietician.
male dominated jobs
construction workers, firefighters, auto mechanics, pilots.
pay equity
- the wage gap is the disparity between womens and mens earnings.
-wages should reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.

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