Glossary of sociology 110
Created by tbrandt
- The social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills and cultural values within a formally organized structure
- Social Institutions
- Education imports values, beliefs, and knowledge considered essential.
- suggest that education contributes to the maintenance of society and provides opportunity for upward social mobility
- conflict theorists
- Argue that education prepetuates social inequality.
- Symbolic interactions
- Focus on classroom dynamics and the effect of self concept on grades and aspirations
- Manifest functions of education
- -socialization of the young
-teaching of academic skills
- Latent functions of Education
- -child care
-transmission of values
- Cultural transmission
- passing major portions of societies knowledge from one generation to the next.
- The hidden curriculum
- -Schools for poor working class students emphasize procedures and note memorization
- Schools for middle class students sress the process involved in getting the right answer
-Schools for affluent students focus on activities in which students express their own ides
-schools for students form elite families work to develop critical thinking skills, applying abstract principle to problem slving.
- Durkheims theory
- According to durkheim when people live together they come to share common sentiments nd values
- Durkheims theory 2
- These form a collective conscious that is larger than any individual
- When we experience the collective conscious directly, we can distinguish the world of the profane from the transcend world of the sacred
- we designate certain object as symbolizing the sacred, these are TOTEMS
- We invent public practices to connect us with the sacred
- Criticisms of Durkheim
- 1) Over emphasizes religions role in maintaining social cohesion when religion often incites social conflict.
2) Ignores the fact that when religion increases social cohesion, it often reinforces social inequality.
- Conflict theory perspective
- -Marx saw religion as a tool the upper classes used to dominate the lower classes.
- The lower classes were distracted from social change by the promise of happiness through religion
- formal organizations that see themselves and are seen by society as the primary and legitimate religious institutions.
- groups that have broken off form an established church, when a faction questions its legitmacy
- Religious groups devoted to a specific cause or a leader with charisma
- Social class
- consists of a category of people who share similar opportunities, similar economic and vocational positions, similar lifestyles, and similar attitudes and behaviors
- A society that has several different social classes and permits social mobility
- Refers to a condition in which people o not have enough money to maintain a standard of living that includes the basic necessities of life.
- Between 14 and 45million americans live in poverty, but we do not have an unequivocal way to determining how many poor people there are in the u.s.
- (Society) relationships are impersonal and independant
- (Community) Relationships are intimate, cooperative,and personal.
- Mechanically integrated society
- society is one in which a societys collective conscience is to strong and there is great commitment to that collective conscience.
- organically integrated society
- social solidarity depends on the cooperation of individuals in many different positions who perform specialized tasks.
- a formal organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity in which every series of actions is functionally related to the purpose of the organization.
Example- Roman catholic church
- is a system of beliefs and practices based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a single moral community.
- social group
- -a social group consists of a number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain common goals and shared norms
- the individuals interact with one another according to established statuses and roles
- social aggregate
- -is made of of people who temporarily happen to be in physical proximity to eachother, share little else
- ceases to exist when its members are away form one another.
- the physical and biological differences between men and woman
- the social,psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based on the previous biological distinctions.
- criticisms of poverty index
- -when the federal government developed the poverty index, about 1/4 of welfare benefits were in form of goods and services.
- the poverty measure only looks at income, not assets.
- food accounts for a smaller proportion of family expenses today than it did previously.
- myths about the poor
- - people are poor because they are to lazy to work.
-Most poor people are minorities, and most minorities are poor.
-most of the poor are single mothers with children.
- Marx: distribution of wealth
- marx believed that peoples lives are centered on how they deal with the material world.
- Max Weber
- believed that there were three sources of stratification
- economic class
economic classes arise out of unequal distribution of economic power.
- institutional racism
- systematic white domination of people of color embedded and operating in corporations, universities, legal systems and other social collectives.
- female dominated jobs
- kindergarten teachers, receptionists, child care workers ,dietician.
- male dominated jobs
- construction workers, firefighters, auto mechanics, pilots.
- pay equity
- - the wage gap is the disparity between womens and mens earnings.
-wages should reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.
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