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Glossary of soc6

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Created by mtf612

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Deviance
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs
Crime
behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail, and other sanctions
Juvenile Delinquency
violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people
Social Control
systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance
Criminology
the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts and prisons
Strain Theory
the idea that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals (that they are unable to obtain because they do not have the socially approved means to reach those goals)
Illegitimate opportunity structures
circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities, what they cannot obtain normally
Differential Association theory
the proposition that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they are frequently associated with people who are more favorable toward deviance
Social Bond Theory
the proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken
Labeling Theory
the proposition that deviants are labeled as deviants and accept this role and perpetuate it
Primary Deviance
Initial act of rule breaking
Secondary Deviance
the process that occurs when a person accepts their label as a deviant and continues the behavior
Tertiary Deviance
when the deviant seeks to relabel their behavior as nondeviant
Violent Crime
action crimes against a person such as rape, murder, assault
Property Crimes
crimes toward property like burglary, grand theft, arson
Victimless Crimes
crimes involving a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults
Occupational Crimes
Also known as white-collar crimes, they are crimes committed in the course of employment or financial affairs
Corporate Crimes
illegal activities committed by corporate employees on behalf of a corporation (with its support)
Organized Crime
illegal business operation that’s supplies illegal goods or services for profit
Political Crime
illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it
Terrorism
act used to incite fear in to people or groups in order to control them
Criminal Justice System
local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicated crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals
Punishment
any action designed to deprive a person of things of value, because of an offense

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