Glossary of scitoxe
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- what causes malocclusion in rabbits?
- Hereditary malocclusion in this breed
- Dwarf breeds
- When does mandibular prognathism (hereditary malocclusion) in rabbits show up?
- Doesn't show up until 1 year old: after several litters
- How do you prevent malocclusion?
- trimming incisors every 2-4 wks
- If not fed a diet high in fresh grass hay and herbage this can occur...
- molars can get spikes
- commonly isolated from abscesses in rabbits
- Pasteurella multocida
- Why are chronic abscesses hard to cure in rabbits?
- Due to lymphopenia and lack of opsonins (Ab or complement) in rabbits
- Is lancing and flushing usually curative of abscesses in rabbits
- No, not even with antibiotic therapy
- Causes include cramped housing, illness and obesity: Swollen, Painful jts are seen
- Ulcerative Pododermatitis
- MC type of Abscess in rabbits
- Perapical abscess
- Bacteria are more likely to be cultured at the wall or in the contents of the abcess?
- From the wall of the abscess
- Tx for abscesses in rabbits
- Surgery: remove whole abscess
- Topical Tx for Abscesses
- Strong Sugar Solutions
- Causes Snuffles (rhinitis)
- Pasturella multocida
- Present in the nasal cavity of rabbits without causing disease
- Pasturella multocida
- Snuffles charactorized by...
- -serous then purulent material coming from nose
-yellow staining under nose
-audible upper resp. noise
- Can cause rolling and nystagmus in rabbits
- Otitis media caused by Pasterella multocida
- Ear mites of rabbits
- Psotoroptes canaliculi
- Syndromes caused by Pasterella multocida in rabbits
-Dacryocystitis (nasolac. duct)
-Upper resp dz
- Ocular dz caused by Pasterella multocida...
- Anterior uveitis (progressively enlarging white area in eye)
- Anesthetic complication with rabbits
- Breath holding
- Pain meds in rabbits
- Induction agents in rabbits
- Ace and Ketamine
Ketamine and valium
- Why don't you use atropine in rabbits?
- They have atropinesterase
- Can cause renal toxicity in rabbits
- This occurs in obese female rabbits that develop ulcerations on their feet
- Ulcerative pododermatitis
- Where specifically does Ulcerative pododermatitis occur?
- the plantar surface of the metatarsus
- What type of fermentor is a rabbit?
- Hind gut fermentor
- A rabbit needs this to maintain a healthy GI tract
- This species has the largest stomach and cecum of any monogastric animal
- Substance made by the cecum that is Rich in nutrients and excreted seperately from the feces
- Rabbit consumes this directly from the rectum
- Anorexic rabbits can develop this very quickly
- Hepatic Lipidosis
- Blindness (glacoma) is inherited in this breed of rabbits
- New Zealand White
- Chronic red eyes in New Zealand White Rabbits leads to
- Lens induced uveitis
- why does Lens induced uveitis occur?
- it is a leakage of lens protiens causing an autoimmune response
- What does rabbit urine consist of?
- Calcium carbonate
- Why is rabbit urine white?
- Due to calcium carbonate: rabbits have a unique way of metabolizing calcium: they absorb calcium from the gut in direct proportion to the amnt they consume: when blood calcium exceeds kidney threshold, it spills out into urine
- How is the unique way a rabbit metabolizes calcium different from other species?
- In others the bile is the primary route of removal
- What is the term used for large amounts of calcium carbonate calculi?
- Red urine: dark yellow to deep red orange
- Normal Porphyrine
- Why can rabbits testicles move in and out of the abdominal cavity? (hard to sex males sometimes because of this)
- they have large inguinal rings and canals
- Why are inguinal hernias rare in rabbits?
- Because of their epidermal fat pad
- Cause of enlarged uterus in rabbits
- Uterine adenocarcinoma
- How is the female repro tract of rabbits different from other animals
- It has a duplex uterus with two uterine horns and two cervix: no uterine body
- Can cause alopecia along the ventrum in rabbits
- If not restrained properly, this can occur in rabbits
- fracture of lumbar spine
- Etiology of walking dandruff in rabbits
- Cheyletiella parasitivorax
- Tx for walking dandruff
- Sites of venipuncture in rabbit
- tx of Cheyletiella parasitivorax in rabbits
- Ivermectin or carbaryl or permethrin powder
- dx of Cheyletiella parasitivorax in rabbits
- Tape test, fecal floatation
- Sites of venipuncture in the rabbit
- · Jugular
· Lateral saphenous
- type of virus in rabbits: Myxomatosis
- pox virus
- causes of Gastric trichobezoars
- a. Can be induced by GI stasis caused by diet low in fiber and/or high in starch
b. stress due to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
c. Thunderstorms, predator attacks, pain and sx can cause GI stasis
- prevention of trichobezoars in rabbits
- High fiber diet
- cause of pneumonia in a rabbit
- Pasteurella multocida
- Thermoregulation in a rabbit is achieved by....
(rabbits don't sweat or pant)
- why would Acetylpromazine be used in a rabbit to tx heat stroke?
- it is a vasodialator
- Obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of rabbits
- Encephalitozoon cuniculi
- where are spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi shed?
- Spores are shed in urine of infected rabbits
- A rabbit presents with Muscular weakness/hind leg paralysis, PU/PD, Emaciation, Occasional neurologic signs, Uveitis in rabbits infected in utero, Pitted appearance of kidneys due to areas of fibrosis, and Granulomatous lesions in brain, kidney and occas
- Encephalitozoon cuniculi
- dx of Encephalitozoon cuniculi
- E. cuniculi in urine w/ carbol fuchsin stain
- tx of Encephalitozoon cuniculi
- Albendazole and Fendbendazole in humans and rabbits
- etiology of Dermatomycosis in rabbits
- Trichophyton mentagrophytes
- term for blocked lacrimal duct in rabbits
- what dz can ferrets get from humans?
- Ferrets are the only domestic animal spp which is susceptible to human influenza – they are often infected by their human owners
- causes aplastic anemia in ferrets
- Estrogen toxicity
- cause of Estrogen toxicity
- --Intact female ferrets in prolonged estrus
--Ferrets are induced ovulator, so esturs continues until the ferret is bred or the photoperiod changes (shortened day)
--The high estrogen level causes bone marrow suppression causing a nonregenerative anemia that is eventually fatal
--Any ferret that is in estrus for longer than two weeks in is at risk
- a ferret presents with Bilateral symmetrical alopecia, a swollen vulua, along with anorexia and depression.
What is the dz?
- tx for hyperestrogenism
- 1. Take female out of estrus safely including a vasectomized male
2. mechanical stimulation w/ a Q-tip
3. Using HCG or GnRH at least 10 days but not longer than 1 month after estrus onset
4. Ovariohysterectomy – esp if bone marrow suppression signs are obvious
- what is significant about giving a blood transfusion in a ferret?
- Ferrets do not have a blood type so can receive blood transfusions multiple times from multiple donors
- prevention of hyperestrogenism
- Prevention is spaying females at 4-6 months old or within 2 weeks of first estrus
- what has occured if a spayed female ferret shows signs of hyperestrogenism?
- Neutered females who show the above signs have either Adrenal associated toxicity or remnant ovarian tissue
- primary pneumonia in ferrets is caused by...
- Canine distemper virus or influenza
- secondary pneumonia in ferrets is caused by...
- Streptococcus zooepidemicus, S. pneumonia, E coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Bordetella
- lung pattern with pneumonia
- alveolar pattern
- antibiotics used with pneumonia in ferrets
- cephalosporins, chloramphenicol or TMS
- a ferret presents with Unilateral or bilateral, serous ocular discharge that quickly becomes purulent, conjunctivitis, erythema, coughing, hyperkeratosis of the foot pads, and CNS signs.
What is the dz?
- Canine Distemper
- dx of distemper in ferrets
- FA Ab test on confjunctival scarping, peripheral blood smear or buffy coat
- tx of distemper in ferrets
- euthanasia (is 99% fatal)
- prevention of distemper in ferrets
- Proper vaccination w/ CDV approved for ferrets using chick embryo origin (others can induce dz)
- a ferret presents with Melena, lethargy, dehydration, anorexia, and heavy shedding. UA shows Ketonuria
- Pregnancy toxemia
- tx of Pregnancy toxemia
- Immediate C section
- a ferret presents with wt loss, hypoglycemia, hind limb weakness, staring off into space, salivation, and seizures. What is the dx?
- One of the most common neoplasms in the ferret
- most common cause of seizures in a ferret
- type of tumor with insulinoma
- A pancreatic beta cell tumor
- pathophys of insulinoma
- Tumor produces high livels of insulin, driving glucose out of bloodstream and into the cells at a rapid rate. As blood glucose level drops the brain becomes deprived of energy which impairs its normal function and muscles become weak.
- insulinoma is often seen in conjugation with...
- Adrenal neoplasm
- tx of insulinoma
- why are corticosteriods used to treat insulinoma?
- promote hepatic gluconeogneeis and inhibit cellular affinity for insulin
- why is diazoxide used to treat insulinoma?
- benzothiadiazide diruetic, inhibits insulin secretion and stimulates hepatic gluconeoneisis; adjunct to corticosteroids and prevents Cushings
- why should you avoid high doses of pred in an insulinoma ferret?
- avoid high doses to prevent iatrogenic Cushing’s dz
- a ferret presents with Bilateral, symmetrical alopecia starting at the hind end and progressing forward on the body, pruitis, Atrophy of hind end musculature, swollen vulva, and pot bellied appearance. What is dz?
- Adrenal tumor
- is an adrenal tumor in ferrets the same as cushings in dogs?
- dx of adrenal tumor in ferrets
- Elevated androgen and estrogen levels
- tests that do not dx adrenal tumor in ferrets
- ACTH and dex suppression test are NOT dx
- tx of adrenal tumor in ferrets
- Surgical Removal
- how does mitotane work to tx an adrenal tumor?
- selectively destroys zona fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal cortex; may be unresponsive esp in carcinoma
- how does O,p DDD work to tx an adrenal tumor?
- effectively reduces blood cortisol levels
- primary cause of death in aged hamsters
- normal hamster urine
- why do hampster teeth need to be trimmed
- Open rooted incisors
- Transmissible ileal hyperplasia in hamsters
- Wet Tail
- 3 etiologies of wet tail
- Campylobacter, Colibacillosis, or Cryptosportidia
- wet tail is associated with...
- stresses such as weaning 3-5 weeks old, changes of environment, malnutrition and overcrowding
- sequele to wet tail
- Intussception or rectal prolapse, and peritonitis
- postmortem lesions seen with wet tail
- ·Intestines, espec. the ileum, will be congested and edematous
·Gut contents are yellow, mucoid and often bloody
- tx of wet tail
- ·Supportive tx and nursing (fluids, Abs, multivitamins esp Vit B)
- 3 CS seen with wet tail
- a.Watery D+ and soiling of vent
b.Hunched position and is lethargic, anorexic
c.Death from dehydration
- 2 salmonella sp. assoc with hamsters
- ·S enteriditis and typhimurium
- 2 causes of diarrhea in hamsters
- Salmonella or Tyzzers (Clostridium piliforme)
- do hamsters have scent glands?
- Possess two scent glands on either flank
Most noticeable during breeding season
- how do you sex a hamster?
- Distance between urogenitcal orfice and anus is shorter in the female
- purpose of copophragia in hamsters
- enabling the hamster to ingest valuable B vitamins formed by microflora of cecum
- toxic antibiotics to hamsters
- Erythromycin, Penicillin, Lincomycin, Cephalosporin and streptomycin
- recommended antibiotics in hamsters
- Enrofloxacine, tetracycline, Metronidazole and Neopmycin
- why are certain antibiotics toxic to hamsters?
- allow proliferation of Clostridium dificile and Lawsoni intercelli
- Hibernation in hamsters is caused by
- Will hibernate if temp gets below 41°
- prevention of hibernation in hamsters
- Prevent by keeping temp at 70° for 14 hours/day
- mice get this type of mammary tumor
- adenocarcinoma (malignant)
- rats get this type of mammary tumor
- fibroadenomas (benign)
- produces porphyrin-rich red substance in rats and mice
- Harderian gland
- fur mites in rats and mice (3)
- Myobia musculi,
Myocoptes musculinis, Radfordin affinis
- 2 intestinal paratsites of rats and mice
- – Spironucleus muris, Giardia muris, affect immunocompromised mice or rats (‘Nude’ rats)
- pinworms in rats and mice
- Syhacia muris,
Syphacia obvelata, Aspircularis tetraptera,
- pinworms in rats and mice cause
- rectal prolapse
- · Response to stress is the Harerian glands in the eye produce ‘red tears’- prophyrin staining around the eyes and nose and occurs with this dz
- Pneumococcal and Pasteurella pneumonia
- etiologies assoc with Pneumococcal and Pasteurella pneumonia (4)
- Pasteurella pneumotropica, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bordetella brochiseptica, Mycoplasma pulmonis,
- etiology of Sendai virus
- Sendai virus causes this body system problem
- respiratory problems
- main differential for Sendai virus
- Mycoplasma pulmonis
- ·Causes inflammation and edema of cervical salivary glands and lns
·May exhibit red oculonasal discharge from Haverian gland
- Sialodacryoadenitis virus
- etiology of Sialodacryoadenitis virus
- Corona virus
- how do you sex guinea pigs?
- · Both sexes have two inguinal nipples
· Sow has U shaped crease in ridge between the urethral orifice and anus
- guinea pigs presents with: ADR, ruffled fur, hemorrhage into joints and muscles causing stiff posture and lameness: what is dx?
- Vitamin C Deficiency
- avoid using these antibiotics in guinea pigs
- penicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, bacitracin dihydrostreptomycin, clindamycin and tetracycline
- use these antibiotics in guinea pigs
- Chloramphenicol, endrofloxacin, TMZ
- bacteria assoc with antibiotic toxicity
- Clostridium dificile
- how is bacterial enteritis caused by giving antibiotics in hamsters?
- ·Acute cecitis or typhlocolitis when Abs which affect normal flora and allow proliferation of Gram negative or anaerobes
- what does antibiotic toxicity cause in guinea pigs
- Cause enterotoxemia,
- occurs in Heavily pregnant, primaparous sows
- pregnancy toxemia
- when does pregnancy toxemia occur in guinea pigs
- during last two weeks of gestation or first week postpartum
- why is Dystocia Common in females bred for the first time after 9 months old
- pubic symphysis fusion and the birth canal cannot widen to accommodate the pup
- what vitamin deficiency occurs in turtles?
- Hypovitaminosis A
- why are turtles suceptible to Hypovitaminosis A
- · Fat soluble vitamin, so having poor fat reserves means that turtles require a constant low level intake of Vit A in order to avoid deficiencies
- why is vitamin A required by the body?
- production of healthy epithelia
- what does a vit A deficiency result in?
- metaplasia and degeneration of epithelial surfaces (conjunctiva, gingiva, pancreatic ducts, renal tubules, skin and lung alveoli)
- what are two significant things about lungs in turtles?
- ·Lungs of turtles are located dorsally just below the carapace and do not possess true pleural membranes
·Inflation is aided by limb movement
- cause of pneumonia in turtles
- Chlamydia psittci
- CS assoc with acute pneumonia
- a. gaping of mouth/neck stretching
b. Excessive nasal or oral discharge
c. Cyanosis or weakness
d. Hyperactivity b/c of resp distress
e. Concurrent dz
- tx of pneumonia in turtles
- Enrofloxacin (Mycoplasma and Chlamydia) , Ampicillin, or Oxytetracycline
- CS assoc with chronic pneumonia in turtles
- a. Persistent, low level mucous discharge from mouth
c. Genralized weakness
d. Rocking and recurrent mouth opening are seen
- radiograph a turtle with pneumonia in these psns
- lateral and dorso-ventral radiographs
- locate lesion with pneumonia via rads and do this
- drill through carapace, and swab lesion and place appropirate Ab directly onto the infection; plug w/ steril Blu-tacâ to allow resp fxn to be continued
- turtles carry this dz that can infect humans
- a. Unsuitable mineral and vitamins in the diet (such as lettuce only)
b. Feeding high protein diet esp if low in Ca
c. Unsuitable artificial light source decreasing Vit D3 activation
all cause this...
- Soft shell Dz (Nutritional osteodystrophy)
- ideal Ca:Ph ratio is
- Ca:Ph is 4-6 to 1
- Often a result of bacterial infection (pneumonia, ulcerative shell dz or abscess reaching the blood stream)
- 6 signs of septicemia in a turtle
c.Erthematous flush to plastron and carapace
f.Petechial hemorrhages of MM
- tx of septicemia in turtles
- enrofloxacine, oxytetracycline, Ampilcillis, fludi therapy, maintain at body temp
- shedding of keratinized skin and is hormonally mediated in snakes
- Characterized by early petechia in oral cavity that developes to caseous material in snakes
- Ulcerative stomatitis
- etiology of Ulcerative stomatitis
- Aeromonas and Pseudomonas
- tx of Ulcerative stomatitis
- ·Debridement, irrigationa nd aniseptics and/or Abs is therapy
·Vit A & C supplementation is recommended
- Respiratory infections in snakes are common and are influenced by....
- parasitism, unfavorable environmental temps, unsanitary conditions, concurrent dz and malnutrition
- CS with pneumonia in snakes
- Open mouth breathing, dyspnea, nasal discharge
- etiology of pneumonia in snakes
- Aeromonas and Pseudomonas
- Common cause of death in snakes
·May be preceded by trauma, local abscesses, parasitism or environmental stress
- assoc with septicemia in snakes
- Aeromonas and Pseudomonas
- Aeromonas may be transmitted by...
- snake mite Ophionyssus natricis)
- 6 CS of septicemia in snakes
- a. Resp distress
e. Petechia may be found on ventral abdomen
f. Chelonians (turtles) show erythemia of plastron
- bacteria assoc with enteric dz
- a. Shigella
d. Campylobacter jejuni
e. E coli, Pseudomonas, Aerobacter
- may be intermittant/asymptomatic carriers of previous bacteria causing enteric dz
- major problem in primates
- primates are prone to this vitamin deficiency
- Vitamin C
- commercial monkey diets contain vitamin C that is only stable for this long
- Vit C that is stable for 3 months
- supplemental sources for vitamin c in primates
- citrus fruits
- All macaques are considered to be potential shedders of this...
- Herpesvirus simiae (herpesvirus B)
- herpes simplex is transmissible to....
- herpes T is transmissible to.....
- humans and owl monkeys
- how is herpes B transmitted to humans?
- monkey bites or scratches
- signs of herpes in monkeys
- -May be asymptomatic in monkeys
-May have blisters or ulcers in mouth
-Vesicles at bite site
- signs of herpes in humans
- a. Can cause fatal encephalitis and encephalomyelitis
b. High CFR (70%)
- tx of herpes B
- Many chimpanzees transmit this virus?
- Hepatitis A virus
- Heptatitis A virus causes
- infectious hepatitis
- why shouldn't you rely on CS to dx TB in monkeys?
- b/c can appear healthy and have extensive miliary dz involving thoracic and abdominal organs
- very sensitive to TB
- Old World Monkeys (Rhesus monkey)
- mandatory in monkeys
- TB testing
- where do you test for TB in monkeys at?
- the upper eyelid or shaved abdominal skin and examine at 24, 48, and 72 hours
- why can't you do chest rads to dx TB in monkeys like you can in humans?
- Radiography of the chest may be unreliable since lesions rarely calcify or caviate as they do in man
- tx for all monkeys that react positive to TB
- effective tuberculostat for valuable, endangered primates (great apes) but may suppress skin test reaction
- usually occurs in Newly imported primates
- Rubella (Measles)
- causes Nonpruritic, exanthematous, rash on the chest and lower portions of the body
- measles can also cause these three things
- a. Interstitial giant cell pneumonia
- what can you vaccinate baby monkeys with to prevent measles?
- human measles vaccine
- parvo virus in the mink resulting in immune complex formation and deposition
- Aleutian Disease
- MC bacteria causing intestinal dz in Guinea pigs
- require dust baths to maintain healthy coat and skin
- how do you catch a Chinchilla?
- grab by tail
- don't grab this by the tail...
- Have an absolute requirement for Vitamin C
- Guinea Pig
- if not Vitamin C in guinea pigs what happens?
- scurvy: hemmorrhage into joints
- Gestation in a guinea pig?
- 68 days
- Genetic predisposition for epilepsy
- precocious young (fully haired and eyes open) in what?
- Guinea Pig
- must breed a guinea pig by this age or the pelvic symphysis fuses and results in dystocia
- 8 months of age
- why don't you house guinea pigs with rabbits?
- The rabbits can give the guinea pigs Bordatella bronchioseptica.
- why don't you use pine shavings for bedding with rodents?
- it can induce hepatic microsomal enzyme systems
- mite causing otits externa in rabbits
- Psoroptes cuniculi
- Where are rabbits prone to getting hairballs stuck?
- the pylorus because it is small
- vitamin present in cecal pellets of rabbits
- Vitamin B
- spay female rabbits to prevent this (other than pregnancy)
- uterine adenocarcinoma
- rabbits reach sexual maturity at what age?
- 4-5 months
- gestation length in a rabbit
- 30-33 days
- do rabbits whelp a litter?
- no, it is called kindle in rabbits
- rabbit syphillus
- this can occur on the face of rabbits kept outdoor
- unique of rabbits repro system
- they have a double cervix
- Snuffles in rabbits
- MC crystal in rabbit's urine
- calcium oxalate
- cause of torticollis in rabbits?
- otitis media caused by pasturella
- Wet tail in mice and rats caused by
- Bacillus piliformes
- Lifespan of ferret
- 4 years
- unique of renal dz in ferrets
- creatinine doesn't increase in ferrets
- Green slime dz in ferrets
- Coronavirus enteritis
Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis
- repro pattern of ferret
- Induced ovulators
- BM suppression, pancytopenia, bilaterally symetrical alopecia, discharge, and non-regenerative anemia in ferrets
- Estrogen Toxicity from prolonged estrus (female who isn't spayed will remain in heat until bred)
- this dx test doesn't work in ferrets with adrenal dz because cortisol levels are unaffected
- ACTH stim test
- right adrenal is on...
- caudal vena cava
- tx for adrenal dz in ferret
- mitotane and surgery
- ACTH agonist that stops secretion from the pituitary
- tx of insulinoma in ferret
- does insulinoma met?
- site of lymphoma in a ferret
- cranial mediastinum
- tx of lymphoma in ferret
- causes vasculitis in mink
- Aleutian Mink Dx (parvo)
- cutaneous nematode that causes excoriation and erosion on dorsal cervical skin
- MC cardic dz in ferrets
- DCM (HCM is rare)
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