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Glossary of saggda

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Functional assessment
A process of finding information about the events that precede and follow a behaviour to determine which antecedents and consequences are reliably associated with a behaviour.
ABC observation
A functional assessment method involving direct observation of the antecedents, target behaviour and consequences of the behaviour.
ABC observation is usually conducted in what setting?
The natural environment of the behaviour
Scatter plot
A type of functional assessment procedure in which you record each half hour whether the behaviour occurred in the preceding half hour.
A scatter plot is used to?
Establish the temporal pattern in the behaviour.
Descriptive assessments
Together as a group, indirect and direct functional assessment methods are called descriptive assessments.
Experimental analysis/Functional analysis
The scientific study of behaviour and the types of environmental events that are functionally related to the occurrence of behaviour. Involves laboratory research with nonhumans and humans.
Exploratory functional analysis
A type of functional analysis in which the behaviour analyst may not have a hypothesis about the reinforcing consequence maintaining the problem behaviour and is exploring a range of possibilities in the functional analysis. An exploratory functional analysis typically includes three or four test conditions and a control condition. In each test condition, the behaviour analyst presents an EO and a possible reinforcer for the problem behaviour and, in a control condition, presents an AO and withholds the possible reinforcers.
Hypothesis-testing functional analysis
When one condition (test condition) presents the hypothesized EO, and when the problem behaviour occurs, presents the hypothesized reinforcer. The other condition (the control condition) presents the hypothesized AO, and if the problem behaviour occurs, does not provide the hypothesized reinforcer.
Functional interventions
Interventions that decrease problem behaviours without the use of punishment by modifying the antecedents and consequences that control the behaviours.
The three types of functional interventions are?
Extinction, Differential reinforcement and Antecedent control
The four broad classes of reinforcing consequences for problem behaviours are?
Social positive reinforcement, Social negative reinforcement, Automatic positive reinforcement and Automatic negative reinforcement
Social positive reinforcement
When a positively reinforcing consequence is delivered by another person after the target behaviour
Social negative reinforcement
When a behaviour is maintained by negative reinforcement that is delivered by another person
Automatic positive reinforcement
When the behaviour produces a reinforcing consequence automatically and the behaviour is strengthened
Automatic negative reinforcement
Escape from the aversive stimulus is not mediated by the actions of another person. i.e. Closing a window to get away from a cold draft
The 3 functional assessment methods are?
Indirect methods, Direct observation methods, Experimental methods (functional analysis)
Indirect assessment methods
When interviews and questionnaires are used to gather information from the person exhibiting the problem behaviour (client) or a person who knows them well
Direct observation methods
When a person observes and records the antecedents and consequences each time the problem behaviour occurs
What are the 3 direct observation methods?
The descriptive method, the checklist method and the interval or real-time method
The descriptive method
The observer writes a brief description of the behaviour and of each antecedent and consequent event each time that the behaviour occurs.
The checklist method
For conducting ABC observations involves a checklist with columns for possible antecedents, behaviour and consequences
Experimental methods
When we conduct a functional assessment then we manipulate antecedent or consequent variables to demonstrate their influence on the problem behaviour
Escape extinction
Escape extinction involves no longer allowing escape following the problem behaviour
Extinction
A behaviour that has been previously reinforced no longer results in the reinforcing consequences and therefore the behaviour stops occurring in the future.
Extinction burst
Increase in frequency, duration or intensity of the unreinforced behaviour during the extinction process is called an extinction burst. Novel behaviours may also occur.
Generalization
A process in which the behaviour occurs in the presence of antecedent stimuli that are similar in some way to the discriminative stimulus present when the behaviour was reinforced.
Maintenance
Continuation of a behaviour change for a long period after a behaviour modification program has ended
Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour (DRA)
A procedure for decreasing a problem behaviour by reinforcing a functionally equivalent alternative behaviour to replace the problem behaviour
Differential reinforcement of communication (DRC)
A type of DRA procedure in which a communication response is reinforced to replace the problem behaviour. Also called functional communication training.
Differential reinforcement of an incompatible behaviour (DRI)
A type of DRA procedure in which a physically incompatible behaviour is reinforced to replace the problem behaviour
Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL)
A procedure in which a lower rate of a particular behaviour is reinforced to decrease the rate of the behaviour. Used when the goal is to decrease but not necessarily to eliminate a target behaviour
Differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO)
A procedure in which the reinforcer is delivered after intervals of time in which the problem behaviour does not occur. DRO involves reinforcing the absence of the problem behaviour
Full-session DRL
A differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) procedure in which the reinforcer is delivered if fewer than a specified number of responses occurs in a specific period (the session). It is used to decrease the rate of a behaviour
Function communication training is also called?
Differential reinforcement of communication
Interresponse time (IRT)
The time between the occurrence of consecutive responses
Interval DRL
A type of differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) procedure that involves dividing a session into consecutive intervals or time and providing the reinforcer if no more than one response occurred in each interval.
Momentary DRO
A type of differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO) procedure in which the reinforcer is delivered if the person is refraining from the problem behaviour at the end of the DRO interval. The problem behaviour does not have to be absent throughout the entire interval for the reinforcer to be delivered. Momentary DRO typically is not effective unless it follows the use of a whole-interval DRO procedure
Multiple stimulus assessment
An array of potential reinforcers is presented to the individual and the researcher records which potential reinforcer the individual approaches or chooses first. Then that stimulus is removed to see what the next stimulus the individual approaches until they are all gone. The stimuli are then presented again to see the order they are taken in to determine which reinforcers are the strongest.
Multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO)
Very similar to multiple stimulus assessment
Paired stimulus assessment
Two potential reinforcers (from an array of potential reinforcers) are presented to the individual and the researcher records which stimulus the individual approaches. Each stimulus is presented with every other stimulus multiple times and the researcher calculates the percentage of times that the individual approaches each stimulus, indicating which stimuli are likely to be reinforcers.
Preference assessment
A process of identifying reinforcers for an individual that involves presenting potential reinforcers and measuring whether the individual approaches, manipulates, or consumes the item. Preference assessments can be conducted in at least three different ways; single stimulus assessment, paired stimulus assessment, and multiple stimulus assessment.
Reinforcer assessment
A process in which an item from a preference assessment is delivered contingent on a behaviour to see if the behaviour increases. If the behaviour increases, the item functions as a reinforcer.
Spaced-responding DRL
A type of differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) procedure in which the reinforcer is delivered when responses are separated by a specific time interval. If a response occurs before the interval has ended, the reinforcer is not delivered and the interval is reset. The interval between responses is called the interresponse time.
Stereotypic behaviour
Repetitive behaviours that do not serve any social function for the individual. They are often called self-stimulatory behaviours because they function to produce some form of sensory stimulation for the individual.
Single stimulus assessment
Each potential reinforcer (from an array of potential reinforcers) is presented (i.e. put on a table in front of the child), one at a time, to see whether the individual approaches the stimulus or not. After each stimulus is presented numerous times, the researcher calculates the percentage of times that the individual approached each stimulus to indicate which stimuli are likely to be reinforcers.
Whole-interval DRO
A type of differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO) procedure in which the problem behaviour must be absent throughout the entire interval of time for the reinforcer to be delivered. Most DRO procedures involve whole-interval DRO
Antecedent control procedures
A procedure in which antecedents are manipulated to influence the target behaviour.
Discriminative stimulus
The stimulus that is present when a particular behaviour is reinforced
S Delta
A stimulus that is present when a behaviour is not reinforced.
Establishing operation (EO)
An event that increases the potency of a particular reinforcer at a particular time and evokes the behaviour that produces that reinforcer.
Abolishing operation (AO)
An event that decreases the potency of a particular reinforcer at a particular time and makes that behaviour that produces that reinforcer less likely to occur.
Contingent observation
A type of nonexclusionary time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behaviour, the person is removed from a reinforcing activity for a brief time and required to sit and observe other people as they continue to engage in the activity
Exclusionary time-out
A time-out procedure in which the person is briefly removed from the reinforcing environment – typically to another room-contingent on the occurrence of a problem behaviour.
Nonexclusionary time-out
A type of time-out procedure in which, contingent on the problem behaviour, the person is removed from all sources of reinforcement but is not removed from the room where the problem behaviour occurred.
Response cost
A negative punishment procedure in which contingent on a behaviour, a specified amount of a reinforcer is removed.
Time-in
The environment from which the child is removed during the use of time-out. The time-in environment should be positively reinforcing for time-out to be effective.
Time-out
Loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behaviour.
Time-out from positive reinforcement
A type of negative punishment in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behaviour, the person loses access to positive reinforcers for a brief period. Typically, the person is removed from the reinforcing environment in a time-out procedure.
Punishment
The process in which a behaviour is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease in the future probability of the behaviour.
Application of aversive activities
A positive punishment procedure in which, contingent on the undesirable behaviour, the client is required to engage in an aversive activity (a low-probability behaviour) to decrease the future probability of the undesirable behaviour
Application of aversive stimulation
A positive punishment procedure in which an aversive stimulus is delivered contingent on the occurrence of the undesirable behaviour to decrease the future probability of the undesirable behaviour.
Contingent exercise
A positive punishment procedure involving the application of aversive activities. Contingent on the problem behaviour, the person is required to engage in some form of physical exercise.
Guided compliance
A positive punishment procedure used with a person who displays noncompliant behaviour. When you make a request and the person refuses to comply, you physically prompt the person to engage in the behaviour. The physical prompt is removed as the person complies with the request on his or her own. Guided compliance prevents escape from the requested behaviour, and thus also serves as an extinction procedure when the non-compliant behaviour is negatively reinforced by escape from the requested activity.
Informed consent
The process in which the client is informed of the behaviour modification procedure to be used and agrees in writing to undergo the procedure. Necessary for the use of positive punishment procedures.
Overcorrection
A positive punishment procedure in which, contingent on the problem behaviour, a person is required to engage in effortful activity for a brief period. Positive practice and restitution are two types of overcorrection.
Physical restraint
A type of positive punishment procedure in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behaviour, the change agent holds immobile the part of the client’s body that is involved in the problem behaviour so that the client cannot continue to engage in the behaviour.
Positive practice
A type of overcorrection procedure in which, contingent on the problem behaviour, the client is required to engage in correct forms of relevant behaviour until the behaviour has been repeated a number of times.
Response blocking
A procedure in which the change agent physically blocks a problem behaviour so that the client cannot complete the response. It is often used in conjunction with brief restraint
Restitution
A type of overcorrection procedure in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behaviour, the client is required to correct the environmental effect of the problem behaviour and to bring the environment to a condition better than that which existed before the problem behaviour.
Functionally equivalent response
A response that results in the same reinforcing outcome as an alternative response. The response serves the same function as the alternative response.
General case programming
A strategy for promoting generalization that involves the use of multiple training examples (stimulus exemplars) that sample the range of stimulus situations and response variations.
Natural contingencies of reinforcement
The reinforcement contingency for the behaviour of a particular person in the normal course of the person’s life.
Self-generated mediator of generalization
A behaviour that makes it more likely that one will perform the target behaviour at the right time. A self-instruction that is used to cue the appropriate behaviour at the appropriate time is an example.
Stimulus exemplars
Stimuli that represent the range of relevant stimulus situations in which the response is to occur after training. One strategy for promoting generalization is to train sufficient stimulus exemplars.
Behavioural contract
A written document that specifies a particular target behaviour for a client and the consequences that will be contingent on the occurrence or non-occurrence of the behaviour in a stated period of time.
Controlled behaviour
The target behaviour that is influenced in a self-management project
Controlling behaviour
The use of self-management strategies in which the antecedents and consequences of a target behaviour and/or alternative behaviour are modified.
Goal setting
A self-management strategy in which the person decides on and writes down the desired level of the target behaviour he or she hopes to achieve as a result of self-management procedures.
Self-control
The process by which an individual deliberately alters or changes his or her behaviour to achieve a specific goal
Self-instructions
Self-statements that make it more likely that a target behaviour will occur in a specific situation.
Self-management
Behaviour modification procedures used by a person to change his or her own behaviour. In a self-management strategy, the person engages in a behaviour that alters an antecedent or consequence of the target behaviour or alternative behaviour
Self-praise
Making positive statements to yourself or providing positive evaluations of your own behaviour after engaging in appropriate behaviour.
Short-circuiting the contingency
Occurs when a person arranges a reinforcer for a target behaviour in a self-management project but then takes the reinforcer without first engaging in the target behaviour. May also occur when a person arranges a punisher for a target behaviour but does not implement the punisher after engaging in the target behaviour.
Social support
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which a significant other praises the client for correct use of the competing response and prompts the client to use the competing response when the habit behaviour occurs. In general, social support occurs when significant others are involved in implementing contingencies in the natural environment to help a person reach a self-management goal.
Awareness training
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which the person is taught to identify each instance of a particular habit behavior as it occurs.
Competing response
An alternative behaviour that occurs in place of another target behavior. Typically, the competing response is physically incompatible with the target behaviour, so its occurrence competes with the occurrence of the target behaviour.
Competing response training
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which the client is taught to engage in a competing response contingent on the occurrence of the habit behaviour or contingent on the urge to engage in the habit behaviour.
Diaphragmatic breathing
A type of relaxation exercise in which one engages in slow, rhythmic breathing, using the diaphragm muscle to pull air deep into the lungs.
Habit behaviour
A repetitive behaviour in one of three categories: nervous habits, tics, and stuttering.
Habit disorder
A repetitive behaviour that is distressing to the person. Habit disorders include nervous habits, motor and vocal tics, and stuttering.
Habit reversal
A procedure for treating habit disorders. Its component procedures include awareness training, competing response training, social support, generalization strategies, and motivational strategies. Research has shown that awareness training and competing response training are the most crucial components for treatment effectiveness.
Motivation strategy
Part of the habit reversal procedure used to increase the likelihood that the client will use the competing response outside the treatment sessions to control the habit.
Motor tics
Repetitive, jerking movements of a particular muscle group in the body.
Nervous habit
Repetitive, manipulative behaviours that that are most likely to occur when a person experiences heightened tension. Nervous habits do not typically serve any social function for the individual.
Regulated breathing
The competing response that is used in the habit reversal treatment for stuttering.
Stuttering
A speech disfluency in which the individual repeats words or syllables, prolongs a word sound, and/or blocks on a word (makes no sound for a period of time when trying to say a word)
Tourette’s disorder
A tic disorder involving multiple motor and vocal tics that have occurred for at least 1 year
Vocal tic
A repetitive vocal sound or word uttered by an individual that does not serve any communicative function.
Backup reinforcer
Reinforcers used in a token economy.
Token
A type of conditioned reinforcer that can be used to reinforce behaviour in a token economy. The tokens can later b exchanged for established reinforcers called back up reinforcers.
Token economy
A reinforcement system in which conditioned reinforcers called tokens are delivered to people for desirable behaviours and the tokens are later exchanged for back up reinforcers.
Conditioned reinforcer
A previously neutral stimulus that has been paired many times with an established reinforcer and consequently functions as a reinforcer itself
One-party contract
A behavioural contract in which one person seeks to change a target behaviour. The person arranges the contract with a contract manager, who implements the contingency.
Parallel contract
A two-party contract in which two people each seek behaviour change. Both people specify their behaviour to be changed and the consequence for their behaviour to be changed and the consequence for their behaviour. However, the contract behaviours and consequences for each party are independent of each other.
Quid pro quo contract
A two-party contract in which two people each specify a behaviour that they will change in return for the behaviour change of the other person.
Rule-governed behaviour
Behaviour that is controlled by a verbal statement (a rule) about a contingency between the behaviour and a consequence.
Two-party contract
A type of behavioural contract in which two people both identify behaviours to change and the consequences for the behaviour change.
Anxiety
A term used to describe respondent behaviour involving the activation of the autonomic nervous system (including rapid heart rate, shallow rapid breathing, and increased muscle tension). Autonomic arousal is an establishing operation that increases the probability of operant behaviour involving escape or avoidance responses. Typically, some event functions as a conditioned stimulus (CS) to elicit the autonomic arousal as a conditioned response (CR). The operant behaviour functions to escape from or avoid the CS.
Attention-focusing exercises
A type of anxiety-reduction strategy in which one focuses attention on a pleasant or neutral stimulus to remove attention from the anxiety-producing stimulus.
Behavioural relaxation training
A type of relaxation training in which one assumes a relaxed posture in all of the major muscle groups of the body to achieve relaxation.
Contact desensitization
A form of in vivo desensitization in which the therapist provides reassuring physical contact, such as holding the client’s hand or placing a hand on the client’s back, as the client progresses through the hierarchy.
Fear
Occurs when a stimulus situation elicits autonomic nervous system arousal and the individual engages in behaviour to avoid or escape from the stimulus situation.
Fear hierarchy
Used in systematic desensitization or in vivo desensitization procedures. In the fear hierarchy, various fearful situations are listed in order from least to most fear-provoking. Each new situation in the hierarchy is only slightly more fear-provoking than the previous situation.
In vivo desensitization
A procedure for treating a fear or phobia. The client first learns relaxation. Next, the client develops a fear hierarchy in which fear-producing situations are ordered from least to most fear-producing. Finally, the client makes actual contact with the fear producing situation at each step in the hierarchy in turn while maintaining relaxation as a response that is incompatible with the fear response.
Phobia
A fear in which the level anxiety or escape and avoidance behavior is severe enough to disrupt the person’s life.
Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
A relaxation procedure in which the client learns to tense and relax each of the major muscle groups of the body. By this means, the client decreases muscle tension and autonomic arousal in the body.
Relaxation training
A procedure for teaching a person the skills needed to decrease autonomic arousal (anxiety) by producing an incompatible state of relaxation/ Progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, attention-focusing exercises, and behavioural relaxation training are types of relaxation training procedures.
Systematic desensitization
A procedure used to treat a fear or phobia. The person first learns relaxation. Next, the person develops a hierarchy o fear-producing situations. Finally, the person uses the relaxation procedure as he or she imagines each situation in the hierarchy, starting with the least fear-producing situation and gradually working up to the most fear-producing situation. The goal is to replace the fear response with the relaxation response as each situation is imagined.
Cognitive behaviour
Covert verbal or imaginal behaviour. Examples include thinking, talking to yourself, imagining specific behaviour or situations, and recalling events of the past. Cognitive behaviour is influenced by the same environmental variables that influence over behaviour.
Cognitive behaviour modification
Procedures used to help people change some aspect of their cognitive behaviour. Includes procedures to help people eliminate undesirable cognitive behaviours (i.e. cognitive restructuring) and procedures to teach people more desirable cognitive behaviours (i.e. cognitive coping skills training)
Cognitive coping skills training
A cognitive behaviour modification procedure in which the person learns specific self-statements for use in a problem situation to improve his or her performance or influence his or her behaviour. An example is self-instructional training.
Cognitive restructuring
A cognitive behaviour modification procedure in which the client learns to identify thoughts that are distressing and then learns to eliminate those thoughts or to replace them with more desirable thoughts.
Cognitive therapy
A type of cognitive restructuring, originally develop by Beck, in which the therapist teaches the client to identify and change his or her distorted thoughts or self-talk.
Self-instructional training
A cognitive behaviour modification procedure where clients learn to make self-statements that make it more likely that a target behaviour will occur in a specific situation.
What are the three types of differential reinforcement procedures?
DRA, DRO and DRL

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