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Glossary of radio tv film 1310 exam 2

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radio's 3 c's indicate the
nature of the business
what are the radio's 3 c's?
competition
consolidation
control

there are more radio stations than
any other medium
5 times more radio stations than
newspapers
10 times more radio stations than
television
there's competition for --- --- within the radio market
advertising revenue
radio is a --- based medium
locally
am's in local markets rely on
local advertising
fm's frequently --- in larger cities
dominate
fm's have a combination of --- --- and --- ---
national spot
local advertising
80 percent of all radio listening
fm stations
the most profitable of all stations
-big fm stations in major cities
- am news/ talk stations in major cities
arbitron 2007 study says --- accounts for 3.4 percent of total radio listening
satellite
--- --- --- of radio reflects the companies now involved in the medium
increasingly competitive nature
--- lobbied to deregulate radio in the ----
nab
1990s
when the nab lobbied to deregulate radio...

--- stations have largely disappeared

--- restrictions were lifted

--- shifted the radio landscape





-mom and pop

-group ownership

-telecommunications act of 1996



no limit to total number of stations a group can own
relaxed ownership standards
set as a maxiumum that group owners could own up to
8 stations in one marketplace
--- of station owners formed
super groups
lma
leased or local market agreements
refers to the in-market control of radio stations in terms of numbers of stations and the amount of revenue in a single market by a one owner
duopoly
the arrangement that allows one station to oversee the programming, operation, and sales of another without owning it
lma
pre 1970s
am-fm-tv combos
effective 1970s
only am-fm combos
pre 1992
1 am and 1 fm
effective 1992
2 am and 2 fm
2 am and 2 fm combos provided such a combo reaches no more than -- of the market
25 %
multiple radio station ownership limits for a
single market
limiting for a single market by multiple radio station ownership is determined by
number of stations in the market
limiting for a single market by multiple radio station ownership takes place in ---
wish how many stations
the largest markets with 45 or more stations
no more than - radio stations and no more than - in the same service (am or fm)
8
5
markets with 30 to 44 stations
no more than 7 stations
no more than 4 in the same service
markets with 15 to 29 stations
no more than 6 radio stations
no more than 4 in the same service
markets with 14 or fewer stations
no more than 5 stations
no more than 3 in the same service
national multiple station limits for broadcast stations

pre 1985

7 am, 7 fm
national multiple station limits for broadcast stations

effective 1985

12 am, 12 fm
national multiple station limits for broadcast stations

effective 1992

18 am, 18 fm
national multiple station limits for broadcast stations

effective 1994

20 am, 20 fm
national multiple station limits for broadcast stations

effective 1996

no limit on am or fm
america's -- largest radio group owners (----)
15
2009
advocates of consolidation maintain that group ownership allow for
economies of scale
advocates of consolidation maintain that group ownership allow for economies of scale because it allows for...
-better buying power
-more efficient programming execution
-shared resources leading to better news coverage

critics of consolidation point to
-reduce sensitivity to community concerns
-sameness in formats from market to market
-- -- -- are very structured
radio station formats
tend to be very tightly controlled by station management
formats and music playlists
conducted by group owners
rigorous consumer research
most markets in the us receive at least -- radio signals
25
city where stations are located is called
market
most stations cater to
target audiences
most stations cater to to target audiences with a
specific demographic segment
sometimes stations catering to target audiences can be referred to as
narrow casting
the program strategy known as the radio stations format is
narrowcasting
successful format consistently delivers its target audience to
specific advertisers
target audience attributes include:
age
gender
income level
lifestyle and habits


most programmed format
country
many types of music fall into these categories
adult contemporary and oldies
adult contemporary and oldies tend to attract the audience most in demand by
advertisers
in contemporary hit radio...emphasis is on
most current hit music
in contemporary hit radio...music tents to be
uptempo
in contemporary hit radio...there is a --- --- of songs
fast rotation
in contemporary hit radio...djs tend to be
assertive and loud
popular ethinc formats (4)
rhythmic chr
popular ethnic formats (4)
rhythmic chr
rhythmic ac
urban oldies
urban contemporary


more popular ethnic formats (5)
mexican regional
spanish adult hits
spanish tropical
spanish hot adult contemporary
spanish contemporary



program formats (13)
rock
classic rock
triple a
sports talk
oldies/ nostalgia
classical
religious
jazz
alternative
disco
polka
eskimo
niche formats











how many radio stations are in noncommercial radio
3000+
two broadcast categories in noncommercial radio:
npr and non-npr
three types of noncommercial radio
community stations
college radio
public radio

licensed to civic groups
community stations
sponsored by colleges and communication depeartments
college radio
cpb qualified radio stations
public radio
noncommercial radio frequencies...
none reserved for am radio
in 1941 the first channels were reserved for --- --- with the development of fm

which channels

education use

5 lowest channels

when was the national public radio established?
1970
the national public radio was the first --- --- radio network
satellite delivered
through the national public radio stations pay a fee to --- for service
npr
in the national public radio network a vast majority of non commercial radio networks are not
affiliated with npr
american public radio is now known as
public radio international
when was american public radio established?
1983
the american public radio (public radio international offeres --- exclusively to station
market
when was the american public media established?
2004
two --- --- -- --- have now merged
national satellite radio broadcasters
the primary income of satellite radio is from
subscriptions
the combined satellite radio company has more than --- --- subscribers
20.5 million
the new satellite radio company broadcasts more than --- --- of programming
300 channels
exclusive radio broadcasts from shock-jock howard stern, television magnate oprah and home-decorating guru martha stewart
through satellite radio
--- --- required to put a tuner on the consumer market capable of accessing both services soon after the merger
sirius/xm
sirius/xm required to permit any device manufacturer to develop equipment capable of
delivering the satellite service with no restrictions on adding other technologies
sirius/xm required to cap rates for
3 years
radio station department responsible for placing advertising on the station schedule
traffic operations
television has moved from --- to ---
analog to digital
there are --- television networks and cable networks today than 10 years ago
more
television competes with home video, video games and the internet for
viewers
how many tv full- power stations are operating now
1,700+
what percentage of full-power tv stations are commercial?

noncommercial?

78%


22%


program to attract the largest possible audience

commercial
commercial tv stations sell airtime to advertisers based on
how large the viewing audience is
commercial free funded by donations from viewers like you, businesses, and the governement
non commercial
most affiliated with pbs, college, or educational institutions
noncommercial

what is the total percentage of tv households
98.2
how many tv homes are there in 2011
116 million
what are the big four network television stations?
nbc
cbs
abc
fox broadcasting company


started originally as radio networks
the big 3
nbc
national broadcasting company
cbs
columbia broadcasting system
abc
american broadcasting company
what were the big three networks?
nbc cbs abc
started in 1986 by rupert murdoch. made the big four
fox broadcasting company
upn
united paramount network
started in 1995
star trek and wwe smackdown
united paramount network
wb
warner brothers
started in 1995
-buffy, 7th heaven and smallville
warner brothers
started in 1998
-programming based on family values
pax tv
broadcast tv business consists of
network tv and local tv
abc, cbs, nbc, fox
network tv
--- of total tv viewership on abc, cbs, nbc, and fox
45 %
other networks on network tv include...
cw, univision, nbc, telemundo, multimedios, ion (formerly pax)
network tv ---- ---- and distributes to local tv station affiliates
develops programs
mnt has converted to a
syndication service
wfaa/abc
local channels
local channels are affiliated to a network and schedule programs around
network schedule
local telelvision stations may be classified as --- or --- or ---
network-affiliated stations
or
owned and operated
or
independent stations



local tv stations who are owned by a major network
owned and operated
most profitable local stations
owned and operated
local television stations are rated by
profitability
this service was created originally to promote minority ownership in 1982
lower-power television
lower-power television stations are limited to --- watts vhf and --- kilowatts on uhr
3000
150
about --- lower power televisions are in operation mainly in ---- ----
2300
rural areas
--- has the most lptv stations
alaska
--- --- and --- --- are likely in lptv
special interest
minority programming
rebroadcasts the programs of a full-power tv broadcast station
translator stations
typically serve communities that cannot receive the signals of free over-the-air tv stations
translator stations
why can't some communities not receive the signals of free over-the-air tv stations
-too far away from a full-power tv stations
-geography (uneven terrain or mountains)
lptv stations with upgraded interference protection rights and added requirements must air at least
3 hours of locally produced programming each week
lptv stations iwth upgraded interference protection rights and added requirements must comply with most of the
non-technical regulations applicable to full-power stations
approximately 550 licensed
class a tv stations
call sign includes the suffix -ca
class a id
call signs may consist of four letters followed by suffix -lp



lptv stations
what is the alternate lptv station id?
5 characters beginning with the letters k or w followed by 2 number and 2 additional letters
the june 12, 2009 deadline for ending analog broadcasts did not apply to
low power, class a, and tv translator stations
will require low power, calss a, and tv translator stations to convert to digital broadcasting sometime in the future
fcc
television owners tend to be
large corporations
station ownership was limited before the
telecommunications act of 1996
pre 1970
am-fm-tv combos permitted
effective 1970
no combos including tv
the total number of us tv homes reached by those stations with no limit does not exceed 35%...now --- as of ---
39%
2003
tv duopolies

pre 1999



1 tv station to a market
tv duopolies

1999





2 to a market with provisions
what are the provisions for tv duopolies in 1999
at least 8 stations in the market

only one of the stations can be among the top 4

programs to more than 350 stations in the us and us territories and prtectorates
pbs
watched by nearly 90 million homes weekly
public television
has a loyal following
pbs
typically pbs ratings hover around -- of homes in the us
2%
public television viewers...
have high incomes and are well educated
pbs garners funding from ---, ---, and ---
local television stations
underwriting, and through federal grants
pbs has been an early advocate of
digital television
1948-52...
joint committee on educational television
non-commercial television reserved --- tv channels initially
242
joint committiee on educational television
-reserved 242 channels initially
-sixth report and order
-conflicting definitions for etv
-wide-ranging cultural and information service
-supplement to formal public school and adult education
-





origins of non-commercial television
1967 carnegie commision study.
-recommended a corporation for public television be established by congress
2 more origins of noncommercial tv
how did non commercial tv follow the commercial model
-building audience
-strong network structure
non commercial broad cast television led to legislation in the form of the
public broadcasting act of 1967
created the corporation for public broadcasting
public broadcasting act of 1967
cpb
corporation for public broadcasting
cpb awards grants for high-quality programs from
diverse sources
cpb helped to build
network interconnection
corporation for public broadcasting promoted the development of more
public stations
corporation for public broadcasting conducted --- and ---
research
training
-name of the business
-address or location of the business
-telephone number of the business if it is an integral part of the operation
-brand and trade names or service listings which do not include qualitative or comparative language.
-value



fcc limits on underwriter announcements
public broadcasting programs are not found else where and provided a ------ on pbs
forum of display
pbs serves viewing needs not met by
commercial broadcasters
public stations are the last real bastion of
localism
public broadcasting presents programming aimed at --- and --- ---
instruction
informal education
detractors think that public broadcasting is
available elsewhere
detractors say that --- --- shouldn't be used to support broadcast stations
government money
detractors say that the --- --- should determine the fate of broadcast stations
market place
detractors say that programming offered is the root of --- in funding
shortcomings
--- target public broadcasting as being too liberal in news and public affairs presentations
conservatives
--- is a strong competitor to over-the-air television
cable
cable revenues exceeded ------ in 2007
70 billion dollars
small -- --- systems in the 1960s (cable)
12 channel
in the 1970s -- --- cable systems were typical
35 channel
in 2007, most people received nearly -- different channels
80
broadcasters could either choose "must carry" or
retransmission consent
cable operators are obligated to carry local station
must carry
cable operators need to negotiate with cable company
retransmission consent
today most cable operators continue to carry programming of tv stations in their
service areas
major nets made programming available to cable in return for
channel space for new services
esa, lifetime, cnn and espn are examples of
advertiser supported basic cable services
electronic program guides and local government channels are examples of
specialty services
peg
local government channels
epg
electronic program guides
wtbs, wgn
superstations
ppv
pay per view
espn, cnn, etc are known as
advertiser- supported cable networks
independent or network stations to remote areas
distant signal imports
about --- of the --- --- homes in the us are capable of subscribing to cable
98
105 million
--- households that subscribe to more than one pay service
multipay
systems with --- --- allow subscribers to pick movies and events on demand
addressable converters
cable has a high --- ---

also known as the cost to

upfront capitalization

-wire each home

--- --- provides additional revenues when dealing with cable economics
tier system
local systems sell
local advertising
additional services such as high speed internet access provide additional
revenue streams
cable television systems are sold on the basis of
cost per subscriber
started in 1994
had on in five television viewers
direct broadcasting sattelites
which 2 companies provided dbs services
directv

disn network

broadcasts from powerful -- and newer -- band satellites
ku

ka

dbs sells --- of services
packages
dbs is generally cheaper than
cable television
more and more dbs markets have --- --- --- included
local television channels
television stations usually have --- divisions
five
division that sells times to advertisers
sales
division that keeps the station operating
engineering
division that is responsible for collecting money and paying the bills
business
division that develops programming for station
programmiong
division that produces local newscasts and informational programming
news
departments of the cable franchise (3)
technology
marketing
customer service

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