cueFlash

Glossary of rachels deck

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

Created by r.baruch

Deck Info

Description

Tags

Recent Users

What makes some starch resistant?
1. shell (grains, legumes, altered starch)

2. unripe bananas, raw potatoes, plantains

3. foods allowed to cool before eating

4. chemical processes





Health benefits of resistant fibers
1. less calories (2-3 cal/gram)
2. protects colon cells
3. absorbs more minerals
4. improves glucose tolerance
5. less hunger
6. lowers cholesterol
7. promotes good bacteria
8. regulates bowel
9. less fat storage









Fructo Oligosaccharides (FOS)
Non-digestible carbohydrates or sugar

FOS health benefits
used by beneficial bacteria for growth.. PROBIOTIC
because it enhances
digestion and absotpition
detoxification and elimination
immune system

increases GI tract health









FOS recommendations
avg daily intake in US= 800-1,000 mg

rec... 2,000 - 3,000 mg





drawbacks of FOS
GAS- most people can eat 5-10 grams of FOS w.o gas, some have problems with 1 gram
Artificial Sweeteners
no calories

FDA acceptable daily intake= 100 fold safety factor

Saccharin
"sweet and low"
300x sweeter
Splenda
600x sweeter and not changed in cooking
Aspartame Nutrasweet
200x sweeter
4 cal/ gram
cannot be used in cooking

ADI of Aspartame
50 g/kg body weight

SO if 150 lbs... about 12-15 cans of diet soda

ADI of Splenda
5mg/kg day
ADI of Saccharin
5 mg/kg
Sugar Alcohols
Mannitol, xylitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates

occurs natually in fruits and veggies

neither sug or alch
1.5-3 calories
not completly absorbed by body







Functions of sugar alcohols
provides bulk/ texture to food
inhibits browning of food
retains food moisture
requires little to no insuline




drawbacks of sug alcohols
some are not absorbed in blood but fermented by bacteria in intestine= gas

NO MORE THAN 50G/DAY OF SORBITOL AND 20 G/DAY MANNITOL

Burping

1. universal
2. product of digestion
3. gas from stomach through mouth
CAUSED BY
swallowing air
gulping food or fluid
anxiety
carbonated drinks
habit









Bloating and Distention
BLOATING-
1. subjective sensation that abdomen is larger than normal
2. may be from a mild form of distention
3. not visibily enlarged until volume= 1 quart

DISTENTION-
1. Objective determaination
2. inability to fit into clothes
3. either continuous or intermittent

CAUSED BY











Flatulence (farting)
CAUSED BY
1. swallowing (not typical)
2. bacteria inhabits intestine and feasts upon fermenting foods (produces hydrogen or methane when consuming)

FEEDS UPON
1. sugars
2. starch/ cellulose- wheat, oats potato, corn





Fart facts
...

Avg Gas Pass per Day
14-23 x
Daily amount passed
3-4 qts, 1-3 pints

more in vegetarians, carbonated drinkers, gum chewers, smokers

Flatulence Odor
Hydrogen sulphide
methanethiol
dimethyl sulphide

gas producing foods
meats
cauliflower
eggs
beans


How to reduce gas
1. elimainate dairy/ take lacatid supplements
2. swallow less air
3. gas reducting meds
4. digestive enzymes (lastase, beano, probiotiocs)






FAT- the good
1. greatest energy source (9cal/g)
2. maintains body temp
3. improves taste, aroma, and texture of food
4. fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E, and K)
5. protects internal organs
6. provides essential fatty acids (omega 6 and 3)
7. cell membrane structure
8. transports proteins in blood








FATS- the bad
1. stored in bad places
2. clogs arteries
3. raises blood pressure
4. may lead to cancers
5. long to digest
6. not good energy source for excerise
7. limits shelf life of food





Lipids- fats
three groups...
triglycerides
phospholipids
sterols


triglycerides
95% of the fats we eat
phospholipids
soluble in fat and water
acts as emulsifiers (helps mix fat and water by breaking fat globules into smaller ones)
sterols
cholestrol
sex hormone fats- assist in normal development and gender related functioning
saturated

animal fats, tropical fats, trans fats
all hydrogens are bonded
HARD AT ROOM TEMP

increases bad chol in blood



unsaturated
liquid oils (poly and mono)
reduces total and bad cholestrol
polyunsaturated fats
good fat
liquid form
COMES FROM
omega 6 vege oils(sunflower oil, nuts, seed)

omega 3- fish soy almonds






essential fats
omega 6 (vege oils, seeds, nuts, whole grains)

omega 3 (fish, soy products, canola oil, flaxseed)

they make hormone like substances that conrol bp, blood clot formation, blood lipids, anti-inflammatory processes



how to avoid EFAs
eat fish (2 servings a week)
milk, eggs, cereal
whole soy
lean meat and poultry


basics of Monounsaturated fats
liqiud at room temp
canola oil, peanut oil, olive oil, nuts
good about mono fats
high in HDLs
low triglyceride level
slows down plaque formation



Cholesterol
1. makes bile
2. sterol fat in structure of brain and nerve cells
3. FOUND IN ANIMAL PRODUCTS

trans fats
its commercially created
solid at room temp
functions of trans fats
enhances the food flavor, taste, and texture

increases shelf life of food

health problems of trans fats
decreases HDL
increases LDL and triglycerdies
increase risk of heart disease, cancer...

FDA trans fat law
law 1/06

can lable 0 gm of trans fats, however may contain up to .49 gm

fat digestion in the small intestine
helps with micelles (bile...)- which aids in absorption

travels with help of lipoprotiens

Lipoproteins
specialized transport system

1. differs in proportion of proteins and fat
2. lipoproteins transported from intestines to lymph and then blood


4 classes of lipoproteins
chylomicrons
VLDLs
LDLs
HDLs

* ALWAYS FOUND IN BLOOD




Chylomicrons
carry fat out of the DI tract
VLDLs
very low density lipoproteins
LDLs
low density lipoproteins
HDLs
high density lipoproteins
Lipoproteins and HD
1. blood cholestrol increases risk of HD
2. LDLs are bad cholestrerol
adheres to walls of arteries and builds plaque
3. high sat fat diets decrease removal of LDLs in blood
4. HDLs- good cholestrol
picks up cholesterol and returns to liver, recycling it back to bile




BLOOD VALUES
...
BV of total cholesterol
< 200... OVER 240 IS VERY HIGH
BV of LDL cholesterol
BV of HDL cholesterol
> 60 is desirable

men should go no lower than 40 and women no lower than 50

BV of triglycerides
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL/ HDL ratio
KEEP RATIO < 5.0

optimum ratio is 3.5

high ratio= high risk of heart attack

FORMULA= divide total cholesterol/ HDL (good)
how to reduce heart disease risk
1. include omega 3s (decreases production of VLDLS and tri while incresing HDLs

DRI-
1.6 g men
1.1 g women



Managing dietary fats
fat between 20-30% total cal

sat fat less than 10% total cal

chol less than 300 mg

trans fat less than 1% total cal





FIBER to lower risk
water soluble- 10-25 g/day
SOY for lowering risk
reduces TC and LDL- 25 g/day
AHA 2001
2g/day to reduce LD
Oats and Oat bran
decreases TC and LDL...

3 g from oat/day can reduce risk by up to 27%

Garlic
2-25% reduction in TC
Fats for energy
30-70% of energy at rest comes from fat- occurs very slowly

fat at rest depends on
genetics
diet
activity level
weight loss





Fats for sport performance
depends on...

excerise intensity and duration
endurance training history
altered metabloic state (fasting)
use of caffine or supplements




Benefits of fat for excerise
great for long term energy

lean athletes store 50,000 calories of fat compared with 2000 cal of carbs

lighter to carry than carbs b.c they dont hold water





drawbacks of fat for excerise
1/3 the rate of carbs for intense energy

hard to digest

long time to adapt to high fat diet

hard to preform at high intensity





Tip to train using more fat
warm up before working out

excerise in cold temps

limit carbs

drink water







Fat recommendations
DRI total fat
20-30% of calories

athlets- 20-25%






WHO fat recommendations
limit total fat to less than 30%

sat fat < 10%

chol < 300mg

trans fats < 1%
Calculating dietary fat: total fat range



20-30%

2,000 cal x .20= 400 cal
400 cal/ 9= 44 grams

2,000 cal x .30= 600 cal
600 cal / 9 cal= 66 grams

SO 44g - 66g for a 2000 cal diet







Sat fat total
10% of total cal

2000 x .10= 200 cal
200/9= 22 grams


Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards